Nova Clinic
Search
Go »
Survey

What medical field are you seeking for your health check-up?

Glossary:

A B C c D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V v W X Y Z

A

A-line bob

An A-line Bob is a women's hairstyle that resembles the capital letter A, hence its name. This style is created by leaving a straight fringe across the forehead, or cutting the bangs into a horizontal line. The bangs or fringe are analogous to the crossbar on the A. Hair on either side of the face is left longer and resembles the two lower pillars of the A. The crown of the head is the point at the top of the letter.

Abdomen

The soft area between the rib cage and the pubic area. A common area for excess hair, often in a line from the belly button to the pubic hair.

Abdominoplasty

A surgical procedure done to flatten your abdomen by removing extra fat and skin, and tightening muscles in your abdominal wall. This procedure is commonly referred to as a tummy tuck.

Abrasion

The process of scraping or wearing hair away. Causing partial or complete absence of hair from areas.

Accelerated vellus syndrome

The anagen phase of cyclic follicular activity is extended. This results in hairs gaining greater length. These hairs retain their colourless downy vellus characteristics. Causes: Stimulation believed to be associated with certain drugs or endocrine changes, i.e.: post menopausal women and transgender (female > male) individuals.

Accelerator

A product that works under the surface of the skin and provides the necessary ingredients for melanin production, which will accelerate the rate at which the skin tans. An accelerator is most effective when used after a shower or at least four hours before tanning.

Accent colour

Usually a sharp, intense colour used as a contrast or pickup for colour scheme. It is used to add excitement to an overall effect

Accommodation

The ability of the eye to focus.

Acetone

A chemical formed in the blood when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. If acetone forms, it usually means that the cells do not have enough insulin, or cannot use the insulin that is in the blood, to use glucose for energy.

Acid

A liquid, usually corrosive with a pH lower than 7, opposite of an alkali.

Acid mantle

The combination of sweat and sebum that provides the skin’s protective coating.

Acid perm

An acid perm produces permanent hair waves with curls that are actually softer than an alkaline perm. It also has a pH from 6.5 to 8.0.

Acne

An inflammation of the skin caused by bacteria. A result of overproduction of oil from sebaceous glands in which the hair follicles become plugged. Also referred to as Active Acne or Acne Vulgaris, Acme.

Acne keloidalis nuchae

A skin condition commonly affecting curly haired Afro-males which presents as itchy follicular papules which enlarge and become keloidal. Common sites include the occiput (the scalp area between the ears). Follicular pustules (folliculitis) may exist. The scars are hairless. The condition may persist for many years.

Acne scar

Scars due to severe acne. They can range from deep pits to scars that are angular or wavelike in appearance.

Actinic keratosis

A small rough spot on skin chronically exposed to the sun. Occurs most frequently in fair skinned people.

Activator

A chemical ingredient that is specifically added to hair bleach to speed up the action of the bleach without unnecessarily damaging the hair. Also referred to as Booster, Bleach Boosters or Bleach Accelerators.

Active ingredient

The substance which, contained in a product, actually does the main part of the work that the product is used for.

Acupressure

A type of bodywork that involves applying pressure to specific points on the body with the fingers, knuckles, and palms to relieve pain, reduce stress, and promote optimum health. This modality was derived in China some 5,000 years ago. Acupressure is part of the holistic system of traditional Chinese medicine that also includes acupuncture.

Acupuncture

A method of relieving pain by inserting needles into the skin. A part of traditional Chinese medicine, this modality employs the body's own energy to help heal itself, restore and maintain health and wellbeing. Working with the same points as in acupressure an acupuncturist will use tiny, fine needles to increase the flow of energy in the body to relieve pain, reduce stress and promote optimum health. It is especially useful for patients who gag and can literally turn off the gag reflex for short periods of time. In almost every case this is long enough to take an X-ray or a difficult impression.

Adhesions

Scar tissue in and around the inside of the pelvic region. Adhesions may interfere with transport of the egg and / or implantation of the embryo in the uterus.

Adrenal

A gland that affects certain types of hair growth.

Afro hairstyle

A rounded, thick, tightly curled hair style.

Age spots

Small flat pigmented spots that are most often seen on areas of the body that have been exposed to the sun over a period of years. Age spots usually occur after the age of 40.

AHA

See alpha-hydroxy acid

Albinism

An inherited disorder in which there is no pigmentation in skin, hair or eyes, due to the absence of melanin, the substance that gives skin its colour. Defective melanin production is thought to be caused by a mutation within genes. Albinos do not tan. but otherwise their skin is normal. Albinism affects people from all races.

Alcohol

A liquid sometimes used for disinfecting skin before and after treatment. Also referred to as Ethyl Grain Isopropyl.

Alexandrite

Laser at 755nm used for hair removal.

Alkali

A liquid with a pH higher than 7, non acidic. Alkalis are used in depilatory creams that dissolve hair, and galvanic electrolysis produces alkalis which can destroy a hair follicle.

Alkaline

A substance with a pH greater than 7; non acidic.

Alkaline perm

A chemically based permanent waving product that has a pH from 7.5 to 9.5. Stronger than acid perms, alkaline perms are designed to produce tight, firm, springy curls rather than the looser curls produced by acid perms.

Allergen

Allergen is a substance that causes an allergic reaction.

Allergy

A bodily reaction to an irritant. Skin allergies can be exacerbated by solutions put on the skin.

Aloe vera

A water/gel-like substance that is known for its ability to soothe irritated skin, especially sunburned skin. It is also a soothing anti-inflammatory that can be used in lotions, creams, cleansers and other products. Known as the “first aid” plant, aloe vera is taken from the inner leaves of the plant.

Alopecia

The complete or partial loss of hair, especially from the head, which either happens naturally or is caused by disease

Alopecia adnata

Congenital baldness or baldness at birth.

Alopecia androgenetic

The common name for male or female pattern baldness which depends on the genetic predisposition of the hair follicles and the levels of DHT in the body.

Alopecia areata

The medical term for hair loss which occurs in patches on the scalp.

Alopecia follicularis

Hair loss due to inflammation of hair follicles.

Alopecia neurotica

Baldness following a nervous disorder or injury to the nervous system.

Alopecia senilis

Baldness due to old age.

Alopecia totalis

The complete loss of scalp hair often combined with the loss of eyebrows and eyelashes.

Alopecia universalis

Hair loss which occurs over the entire body.

Alpha hydroxy acid

Known as AHA, these solutions are used as exfoliants. They can help reduce ingrown hairs and improve the look of skin.

Alternating current

The type of electricity that comes from a wall outlet (AC), as opposed to direct current (DC).

Amalgam fillings (Silver mercury)

A mixture of different metals such as 65% silver, 6% copper, 2% zinc, and 25% tin bound with elemental mercury. Trituration is the process of mixing these alloys together with mercury. Mercury makes up between 45-50% of the mixture and acts as glue that binds these metals into a hard stable substance that can last for decades.

Amblyopia

Sometimes referred to as a lazy eye, is the reduction or dimming of vision in an eye that appears to be normal.

Amenorrhea

Refers to a woman who has never had a menstrual period.

Amino acid

A chemical substance found in plants and animals. The building blocks of hair.

Aminophenols

Phenol derivatives used in combination with other chemicals in permanent (two step) hair dyes.

Ammonia

An alkaline ingredient used in some permanent hair colour. Ammonia is an ingredient that results in a chemical action that decolorizes the hair. A colourless, pungent gas, NH3, extensively used to manufacture fertilizers and a wide variety of nitrogen-containing organic and inorganic chemicals. This is the first step in the nitrogen cycle. Ammonia is generated by fish urine and by the decay of dead fish and plant material. It is perhaps the deadliest agent to tropical fish. Care must be made to ensure that the ammonia levels stay at zero.

Ammonium thioglycolate

A common ingredient in chemical depilatories.

Amortization

The process of converting one enzyme to another.

Ampere

A measurement of electrical current.

Amphoteric

A mild non-irritating surfactant (an agent that allows oil to mix with water) often used in shampoos; leaves hair manageable and is gentle enough for chemically treated hair.

Amsler grid

A chart featuring horizontal and vertical lines used to test vision.

Anaesthetic

A substance used to temporarily reduce or take away sensation and/or bring about a reversible loss of consciousness, usually so that otherwise painful procedures or surgery can be performed.

Anagen

This is the growing phase of the hair cycle which lasts about seven years in a healthy person. The active stage in a hair growth cycle.

Anagen cycle

The active stage in a hair growth cycle.

Anagen effluvium

Hair shafts are produced by follicles within the skin in all but few locations i.e.: palms soles, lips, eyelids, backs of distal phalanges and parts of the external genitalia. Each productive hair follicle provides hair shafts throughout the life of the person. Some follicles may intermittently produce vellus or terminal hair shafts.

Analgesic

A substance used to relieve pain.

Anaphoresis

The forcing of liquids into skin from the negative to the positive pole. The opposite is cataphoresis.

Androgen

Often referred to as male hormone. A group of hormones that causes masculine characteristics and affects hair growth. Higher androgen levels can lead to increased amounts of hair.

Ankylosing spondylitis

A disease that affects the spine, causing the bones of the spine to grow together.

Anode

A positive electrode.

Anovulation

The failure to ovulate.

Anterior chamber

The front section of the eye's interior where aqueous humour flows in and out of providing nourishment to the eye and surrounding tissues.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

The ligament located in the centre of the knee that controls rotation and forward movement of the tibia (shin bone).

Anterolateral shin splint

A type of shin splint that affects the front and outer part of the muscles of the shin and is caused by a congenital (present at birth) imbalance in the size of opposite muscles.

Antibiotic

A drug or preparation used to prevent and treat infection.

Antibodies

Proteins made by the body to attack or fight foreign substances. Antibodies normally prevent infection; however they can be made against sperm, sometimes causing fertility problems. Either the male or female partner may produce sperm antibodies.

AntiI-androgen

A drug or product that blocks the effects of androgens, normally by blocking the receptor sites.

Antiseptic

A chemical agent that prevent the growth of bacteria.

Antisperm antibodies

Antisperm antibodies attach themselves to the sperm and can inhibit movement. In men, this is sometimes in response to injury or surgery to the testes when the blood-sperm barrier has been breached. Antisperm antibodies may impair the sperm’s ability to fertilize an egg.

Apple cider vinegar

A natural solvent in oils and creams. It acidifies products. When used in shampoos and rinses, it separates individual hairs so they can be thoroughly cleansed. Sounds like a great addition to the shampoo of bears, hairy men and Husky dogs.

Aqua aerobics

Aerobic exercises performed in a pool of water using the support and resistance of the water to burn fat, strengthen bones, and increase cardiovascular activity. The buoyancy of the water reduces the chance of injuring joints or muscles.

Areola

The pigmented area surrounding the nipple. A very common area for hair growth.

Arnica

Arnica has been used in Europe for centuries to treat swelling, soreness and bruising. Arnica may significantly increase healing time or the appearance of such. There are many formulations from different companies including a stronger formulation that some plastic surgeons recommend for their patients.

Aromatherapy

The use of essential oils, extracted from plants, trees, and herbs, for therapeutic purposes. Application during treatments such as massage, facials, body wraps or hydro-baths assist with acute conditions, including; acne, blood circulation, detoxification, digestion, and overall stress reduction.

Arrector pili muscles

A microscopic band of muscle tissue which connects a hair follicle to the dermis. When stimulated, the arrector pili will contract and cause the hair to become more perpendicular to the skin surface (stand on end). This causes the hairs to stand up and causes goose bumps.

ART (Assisted reproductive technology)

A term used to describe advanced scientific interventions, such as IVF, which are used to treat infertility.

Arthritis

Inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and sometimes change in structure.

Arthrogram

An X-ray to view bone structures following an injection of a contrast fluid into a joint area. When the fluid leaks into an area that it does not belong, disease or injury may be considered, as a leak would provide evidence of a tear, opening, or blockage.

Arthroscopy

A minimally-invasive diagnostic and treatment procedure used for conditions of a joint. This procedure uses a small, lighted, optic tube (arthroscope) which is inserted into the joint through a small incision in the joint. Images of the inside of the joint are projected onto a screen; used to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in the joint; to detect bone diseases and tumours; to determine the cause of bone pain and inflammation.

Artificial Insemination (Intra-uterine insemination, IUI)

A type of fertility treatment in which sperm is washed and injected directly into the uterus around the time of ovulation.

Ashiatsu

An ancient Asian barefoot massage that uses deep compression as well as acupressure to relieve the discomfort and strain of tight muscles. Techniques are performed as a skilled therapist suspends herself/himself from wooden overhead bars. Ashiatsu, meaning “foot pressure” (Ashi means “foot” and Atsu means “pressure”). Dates back as far as the fifth century. It can be a very deep massage. As with all massages clients can request more or less pressure to desired or pained areas. Ashiatsu is not used on the front of the body or the head. It also is not a recommended service for pregnant women or for those taking aspirin or other medication, those who have had recent eye surgery, breast implants within the last nine months, cancer, heart conditions, varicose veins and high blood pressure.

Assisted hatching

A small hole is made in the outer shell around the embryo (the zona pellucida) before transfer to the uterus.

Astigmatism

A vision problem that results in blurred images.

Atopic dermatitis

A mild inflammation of the skin also referred to as Eczema.

Autoclave

A machine used to sterilize medical utensils and some hair removal devices.

Autologen

A material used in lip augmentation to produce a look of fuller lips. Autologen is derived from your own skin and then injected into the lips.

Axilla

The medical term for armpit, a common place for gonadal hair after puberty. Armpit hair is referred to medically as auxiliary hair.

Ayurveda

Founded in India some 5,000 years ago and recognized as one of the oldest medical disciplines, this modality now stretches worldwide. It incorporates a variety of techniques from meditation to massage and from diet to herbal medicines. The Ayurveda belief is that health results from harmony between mind, body and spirit. Many of the spa treatments are based on the use of oils selected to help balance one's dosha (constitution.).

Azelaic acid

A naturally occurring substance that can be used in skin care products to treat mild acne and other skin conditions.

B

B5

Vitamin B5 (a B Vitamin), also referred to as Pantothenic Acid, is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). Pantothenic Acid is needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Bacteria

An organism responsible for infection.

Balneotherapy

One of the oldest medical procedures that utilizes natural elements such as hot springs and mineral waters. Used for such things as pain relief, increases circulation and stimulates the body’s natural healing mechanisms.

Barba

Medical term for beard.

Barbicide

Brand name of sanitizer used to disinfect salon implements.

Basic shade

A natural or neutral colour.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

A non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate gland swells, which reduces the urine flow and prevents the bladder from emptying.

Benzoyl peroxide

An antibacterial medication used to combat the bacteria that aggravate acne.

Beta hCG test

A blood test used to detect early pregnancy and to monitor progress of the pregnancy during the first weeks.

Beta hydroxy acid (salicylic acid)

An oil-soluble exfoliant that is commonly found in skin-care products. Beta hydroxy acid is used to treat wrinkles, blackheads and photoaging.

Betaine

A natural conditioning substance for example: from molasses or sugar beet.

Binocular vision

The ability to use both eyes at once.

Biopsy

A section of skin tissue removed for clinical observation.

Birthmarks

Discoloured skin that should be examined and approved by a physician before hair removal.

Black skin

Probably the most difficult type of skin from which to remove hair, Type VI on the Fitzpatrick scale.

Blackheads

A type of clogged pore in the skin with a visible black plug.

Blanching

A whitening of the skin sometimes caused by some types of hair removal. Also referred to as Hypopigmentation.

Blastocyst

A stage of embryo development approximately 5 or 6 days after egg collection.

Blastomere

A single cell within a pre-implantation embryo up to the morula stage of development. Each blastomere is totipotent and has the ability to develop into a whole embryo if it was removed and grown on its own.

Bleach

A method used to disguise (not remove) hair by lightening its colour

Bleaching (tooth whitening)

The process of brightening or whitening stained, discoloured or dull teeth with an in-office power bleaching method, or dentist-supervised, at-home whitening systems.

Blemish

Blood or pigment based visible mark. Also referred to as Blimish.

Blend

A modality of electrolysis which uses both thermolysis and galvanic methods.

Blepharoplasty

A primarily cosmetic surgical procedure that reduces bagginess from lower eyelids and raises drooping upper eyelids. The procedure involves the removal of excess skin, muscle and underlying fatty tissue.

Blighted ovum

A non-viable pregnancy which shows a gestational sac with no fetus on ultrasound.

Blister

A small fluid-filled bubble on the skin caused by heat from over treatment with certain types of hair removal.

Blonde hair

Is not as visible, but it’s also harder to treat. Lasers have limited effects on it because of its lack of pigment, and it is difficult to see against the skin.

Boar bristle

A bristle commonly used in natural bristle brushes.

Bob

The Bob was the classic look of the 50s and 60s; the style was short and straight but blow-dried and curled under. At its worst the style could make you look like a mushroom, but at best with the curl accentuating your cheekbones it created an incredibly sexy look. Bob has become a description of the hair length from ear-length to the shoulder. Now you can get straight bobs, or the ends flicked out or in.

Body

The volume or springiness of hair.

Body scrub

A full-body treatment using products such as sea salt mixed with natural oils to assist in the removal of dead skin layers and increase blood circulation. A Body Scrub is sometimes referred to as a Body Polish or a Body Glow.

Bonding

Attaching wefted hair to the natural hair with a latex or surgical type adhesive.

Bonding (composite resin bonding)

The process by which enamel-like resin is bonded to a tooth's surface, sculpted to an ideal shape, hardened, and polished. This is the technique used for both front and back fillings.

Botanical

Refers to a product containing plants or ingredients made from plants.

Botox

A substance derived from botulinum toxin that works by preventing nerve impulses from reaching the muscle, causing the muscle to relax.

Bowen therapy

A non-intrusive therapy using gentle moves on soft tissue at key pressure points to help the body to re-balance itself, release tension and blockages, and to help in the natural healing process.

Braid

To weave strands of hair together. On the scalp braiding is used to form a base or track to sew on a commercial weft. This is the cornrow technique. Off the scalp braiding is used for traditional braiding styles and various methods adding extensions such as Warlocks.

Brassy

Refers to unflattering warm tones in hair colour created by chemicals or damage.

Breast augmentation

A surgical procedure done to increase breast size.

Bridge

A custom device anchored to neighbouring teeth that replaces one or more missing teeth. When a lost tooth is replaced with bridgework, the teeth on either side of the missing one must be prepared as crowns which will serve as abutments to hold the replacement teeth in place.

Broken capillaries

These tiny blood vessels at the surface of the skin appear as streaks or blotches. Most common on the face they are cause by ageing, sun and trauma. Whilst not harmful they can be unsightly. Also referred to as thread vein, spider vain.

Brow lift

A surgical procedure in which the skin of the forehead and eyebrows is tightened to eliminate sagging eyebrows or correct frown lines in the forehead.

Bruise

A discoloration of skin from blood, sometimes caused by electrolysis, plucking, or waxing. Also referred to as a Purpura.

Bulb

The root of a hair, so named because it’s wider at the base.

Bulbous needle

A type of electrolysis needle.

Bulge

A point midway up the hair follicle which researchers suspect must be damaged to induce permanent hair removal

Bulk hair

Term for loose commercial hair. This hair is used for creating wefts or for services like fusion.

Bunion

An inflammation and thickening of the bursa in the joint of the big toe.

Bursa

A sac filled with fluid located between a bone and a tendon or muscle.

Bursitis

Repeated small stresses and overuse that cause the bursa to swell and become irritated.

C

CACI

This acronym stands for Computer Aided Cosmetology Instrument; which is non-surgical face lift. By applying a micro-current to your face, this treatment tones muscles making them feel firmer and smoothes the appearance of lines and wrinkles.

Cajeput

Tea tree oil is an extraction from the Melaleuca tree. Tea tree oil should not be confused with tea oil, the sweet seasoning and cooking oil from pressed seeds of the tea plant (drinking tea). Also referred to as a Camellia Sinensis, Cajeput Tree, or the tea oil plant Camellia Oleifera.

Calaminea

Pink ointment sometimes used to treat skin irritation

Calcium thrioglycolate

The active dissolving ingredient in many cream depilatories

CAM

Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Complementary and Alternative refer to such therapies and lifestyle sciences as homeopathy, Ayurveda, chiropractic, aromatherapy, therapeutic touch massage and energy work to name just a few.

Cancelled cycle

An ART cycle in which ovarian stimulation was carried out but was stopped before eggs were retrieved. Cycles are cancelled for many reasons: there may be too few or too many eggs developing; the uterine lining may not be optimal for embryo replacement; the patient may become ill; or the patient may choose to stop treatment.

Canities

Commonly referred to as the 'greying of hair' - A pigment deficiency frequently seen in middle-aged people of either sex. Close examination of greying hair confirms that it is an illusion caused by the presence of white hairs among a percentage of normal dark pigmented hairs.

Capillaries

Microscopic hair-like blood vessels that connect small arteries (arterioles) and small veins (venules) and carry nutrients to body cells.

Carbomer

A polymer on the basis of acrylic acid. Provides a thickening, gelling action and consistency regulator for cosmetic products.

Carbon dioxide laser

Also referred to as a CO2 Laser, these are commonly used to perform skin resurfacing.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

A condition in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist, a narrow confined space. Since the median nerve provides sensory and motor functions to the thumb and three middle fingers, many symptoms may result.

Cartilage

A smooth material that covers bone ends of a joint to cushion the bone and allow the joint to move easily without pain.

Cast

A cast holds a broken bone in place as it heals, prevents, or decreases muscle contractures, or provides immobilization, especially after surgery. Casts immobilize the joint above and the joint below the area that is to be kept straight and without motion.

Castration

The surgical removal of one or both testicles or ovaries.

Catagen

A brief middle stage in the hair growth cycle, between the active/growing (anagen) and inactive/shedding (telogen) stages.

Cataphoresis

The forcing of substances into the skin from a positive to a negative pole. It is sometimes used after electrolysis to firm skin and reduce redness.

Cataract

A change in the structure of the crystalline lens that causes blurred vision.

Cathode

A negative electrode in a cell or circuit.

Cationic polymer

A substance that positively charges the hair to provide manageability and reduces static. Cationic detergents are often used in shampoos because they reduce static electricity and leave the hair manageable.

Cellulite

A collection of fat cells resulting from poor lymphatic drainage, fluid retention, poor circulation, not drinking enough water, a sedentary lifestyle and hormones. Also referred to as Cellulight.

Cellulite reduction

Clinic based method of reducing the appearance of cellulite. Also referred to as Cellulite Reduction, Cellulight Reduction, Cellulite Removal.

Cetyl alcohol (fatty alcohol)

A gentle humectant, lather booster, and emulsifier. In hair products, it is used to smooth and soften the hair cuticle.

Chamomile

Used in many products for blonde hair to enhance colour.

Chelating

A deep cleansing process which strips the hair lightly before a chemical service. Also referred to as Clarifying.

Chemexfoliation

See chemical peel

Chemical depillatories

Powder or cream preparations that dissolve hair above the surface of the skin. Some find these products very irritating to the skin.

c

chemical peel

A process in which a chemical solution is applied to the skin to remove dead skin cells and stimulate the production of new skin cells. This process is also referred to as Ahemexfoliation.

C

Chignon

A sophisticated, elegant up style, where long hair is twisted (either in a roll or knot) and pinned from the nape of neck. This style is synonymous with the Hollywood and the Oscars, without a single strand of hair out of place.

Chilltip

A patented contact cooling device used in laser hair removal.

Chitosan

A natural polymer obtained from sea crustaceans protects the hair.

Cholasma

See MELASMA

Choroid

The thin, blood-rich membrane that covers the white of the eyeball; responsible fore supplying blood to the retina.

Chromophore

The substructure that is responsible for the spectral selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation.

Chromosome

A thread-like strand of DNA and protein the nucleus of the cell that carries genetic information. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell of their bodies (apart from a mature egg and sperm which have 23 single chromosomes).

Cicatrical allopecia

Baldness due to scarring. The follicles are absent in scar tissue.

Cilia

Medical term for eyelashes. Ingrown eyelashes should never be removed except under the supervision of a trained medical specialist.

Ciliary body

The part of the eye that produces aqueous humour.

Clarifier

A clarifying shampoo is slightly stronger than everyday shampoos and is designed to remove products, hard water or chlorine residue that have built-up over time. These types of shampoos usually have a higher pH level and therefore should not be used regularly as they may dry out the hair and scalp. Use every 2-4 shampoos or the week before a chemical treatment. Always finish with a conditioner.

Clearing

A method of hair removal in which all hair in an area is removed at once, as opposed to thinning.

Climbazole

Highly effective active anti-dandruff ingredient. Combats bacteria on the scalp.

Clomiphene

Citrate A fertility drug taken orally that stimulates ovulation through the release of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.

Clone

A group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived form a single common cell.

Club hair

A non-living hair in the last stages of the hair growth cycle, it is detached from the follicle but has not yet shed.

Coagulation

The process by which blood clots, and can be induced by heat or chemicals.

Coarse

A classification for stronger, thicker types of hair.

Cocamide DEA

Either made synthetically or derived from the kernel of the coconut, it gives lather and cleans skin and hair.

Coherent light

Light that stays focused, a property of lasers.

Cold Sore

A viral infection that appears around the mouth. Hair removal, especially electrolysis and lasers, should not be performed around visible cold sores.

Collagen

A protein that holds all connective tissue together under the skin. The major structural protein in the skin that gives the skin its strength and resilience. Collagen is sometimes damaged by plucking or electrolysis, which can lead to dimpling on the skin. Collagen from a plant is also used to fill in scars and augment lips, often with temporary results.

Cologne

A combination of water containing alcohol and fragrant oils. Not to be confused with a concentrated perfume.

Comedogenic

Causes blackheads (Comedones).

Comedones

A medical term for blackheads.

Compaction

A stage of early embryo development between the 8-cell and the blastocyst stage. Around Day 4 of in vitro culture, when the embryo consists of approximately 8 cells, the cells merge together and this is referred to as compaction. At this stage the embryo called a morula.

Composite resin

A tooth-coloured filling material made of resin reinforced with silica or porcelain particles.

Computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan.)

A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often referred to as Slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.

Conditioner

Creamy hair product meant to be used after shampoo. Moisturizes and detangles hair.

Congenital

A condition that is hereditary, inborn. Excess hair often runs in the family.

Conjunctiva

The membrane that lines the exposed eyeball and the inside of the eyelid.

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye.

Contact cooling

A method of cooling the epidermis immediately prior to laser irradiation in hopes of reducing or eliminating damage to the skin’s surface.

Continuous stimulation technique

A pain reduction method in which the client is distracted by something during treatment (music, etc).

Contracture scar

A type of scar in which a permanent tightening of skin occurs, often in response to a burn. This type of scar may affect the underlying muscles and tendons, limiting mobility and possibly damaging the nerves.

Contusion

Bruise.

Copper peptide

A common ingredient found in skin care products, copper peptide is used to promote and produce collagen and elastin in the skin.

Corn

A yellowish, callus growth that develops on top of the toes.

Cornea

The clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

Corneal curvature

The shape of the front surface of the eye.

Cornrow

Term used to describe an on the scalp braid. These braids can be used to form a track for the cornrow weaving method.

Corpus luteum

The follicle from which the egg was released after ovulation. The Corpus Luteum produces progesterone, which is responsible for preparing and supporting the uterine lining for implantation.

Cortex

The main structure of the hair shaft. The cortex determines the colour and texture of the hair. The largest section of a single hair, containing the main bulk of the hair.

Cortisone

An anti-inflammatory sometimes linked to hair growth when taken internally.

Cosmetic contouring (Tooth reshaping)

The process of reshaping the natural teeth to make them straighter or more youthful in appearance.

Cosmetic dentistry

A field of dentistry dedicated to the art and science of enhancing a person's smile, overall appearance, and oral health.

Cosmetic Imaging

A digital way to see a simulation of what your smile could look like after treatment.

Cosmetics

Certain types of cosmetics (especially liquid foundations and powders) can be used to conceal but not remove hair. Some women and men use this method in conjunction with a hair removal method. Some methods of hair removal require you not use cosmetics immediately after in speed skin recovery.

Couture cut

A couture cut is a high-fashion cut, which is totally exclusive and specifically tailored to your lifestyle and wardrobe.

Craniosacral therapy

A gentle, non- invasive bodywork that directly influences the brain and spinal cord. It is used to locate and release tension, calm over-stressed systems and over-stimulated nerves.

Cream rinse

A mixture of wax, thickeners, and a group of chemicals used to coat the hair shaft and detangle after shampooing.

Crop

Originally the word crop as an alternative to haircut, without any specific meaning to the style of the cut. However it has come to be a description of hair that is cut very short with the hair hugging the head.

Crow’s feet

Wrinkles or fine lines in the outer corner of the eyes (resembling crow's feet). They may appear as the result of aging, sun exposure, smoking.

Crown

Area at the top of the head.

Crown (Cap)

A tooth-like covering placed over a carefully prepared existing tooth. Most crowns are made of porcelain, a stain resistant material that closely replicates the appearance and function of your natural teeth. Used to strengthen, restore or improve the appearance of your natural tooth a crown is placed on an individual tooth much like a thimble over your finger. Crowns are also used to support teeth when there is no longer sufficient tooth structure left to place a filling.

Crusting

Dried fluid that seeps from skin in some clients following hair removal such as laser, electrolysis, and depilatories. It’s best to keep these crusts clean and not pick them to avoid infection and scarring. These crusts are also referred to as Eschars.

Cryopreservation

Freezing embryos from a couple's ART cycle.

Cubital tunnel

A tunnel of muscle, ligament, and bone on the inside of the elbow.

Cumulus oophorus

A protective layer of cells surrounding the egg.

Current

The flow of electricity, either alternating (AC like a wall outlet) or direct (DC like a battery).

Curved follicles

A relatively rare condition which makes certain hair removal methods more difficult and can lead to ingrown hairs.

Cushing syndrome

A disease caused by a tumour on the adrenal gland, which can cause excess hair growth.

Cutaneous

Relating to the skin.

Cuticles

The hard outer protective layer of the hair shaft. Healthy cuticles impart sheen to the hair. If your hair is coloured or bleached they can spread out, split or become bloated due to over processing. Which is why if you do process your hair, you’ve got to take special care and help it’s condition by using products.

Cutting-in

The term used to describe getting a ’hair cut’ and having your new hairpiece styled for the first time when you first receive it. It involves a simple hair cut and blending in of the hairpiece with your existing hair. A regular hair dresser can do this although it is sometimes recommended that a stylist familiar with hairpieces does it.

Cyclodextrins

The compounds produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion. Over the last few years they have found a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as well as agriculture and environmental engineering. It is also the chief active compound found in Procter and Gamble's deodorizing product “Febreze.”

Cyproterone acetate

This drug is normally used to reduce sex drive in men who have an excessive sex drive. It is also prescribed to treat hirsuitism and androgenetic alopecia in women.

Cyst

A closed sac or capsule usually filled with fluid or semisolid material.

D

D & C (Dilation & curettage)

A minor surgical procedure, in which the physician first dilates or opens the cervix and then inserts a thin spoon shaped instrument and uses it to remove material from the internal lining of the uterus. Dilation therefore stands for opening the cervix and curettage means the scraping of the uterine wall.

Danazol

A drug sometimes linked to excess hair growth.

Dandruff

Flaking scalp due to excessive cell production.

Dead sea mud treatment

An application (as in a wrap or soak) of mineral-rich mud from the Dead Sea used to detoxify skin and body, and to ease painful symptoms caused by such conditions as rheumatism and arthritis.

Debriding

The process of removing dead or devitalized tissue prior to reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

Deep penetrating treatment

A conditioner for hair meant for occasional use. Of greater intensity than ordinary conditioners. Formulas usually contain protein, vitamins, and moisture to help dry, damaged hair.

Dentin

A layer of tooth structure under the enamel. Exposed dentine is the main cause of tooth sensitivity.

Depilate

Removal of hair on the surface of the skin. Examples include shaving or the use of depilatory creams.

Depilation

The temporary removal of hair.

Depilatories

Substances used to dissolve hair above the skin’s surface.

Depth

The darkness or lightness of a colour.

Depth perception

The ability to distinguish objects in a visual field.

Dermabrasion

A surgical cosmetic procedure used to smooth skin and reduce scars. A patient's upper layers of skin, scarred from acne, pox or other causes, is frozen and then removed using a high-powered rotating brush.

Dermal papilla

The dermal papilla is situated at the base of the hair follicle. The dermal papilla contains nerves and blood vessels which supply glucose for energy and amino acids to make keratin. A tiny bulge at the root of a hair, believed to be one of the primary targets in permanent hair removal.

Dermal sheath

A lining around a hair.

Dermalogen

A product derived from human donor tissue that is used in lip augmentation to produce a look of fuller lips.

Dermatitis

An inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction or contact with an irritant. Typical symptoms of dermatitis include redness and itching. Also referred to as Eczema

Dermatologist

A doctor who specializes in the treatment and diagnosis of skin and skin-related problems, hair conditions.

Dermis

The middle layer of the skin, the dermis is a complex combination of blood vessels, lymph channels, nerve endings, hair follicles, and sebaceous (oil) glands, muscles. Here, you'll find collagen and elastin. The dermis varies in thickness over different sites of the body. The dermis is also where wrinkles occur.

Detoxification

The elimination of toxin build up in the body through lymphatic massage using essential oils. The application of mineral-rich muds, or dry brushing techniques assist the body in stimulating lymph, and aid in the elimination of toxins. Drinking a litre of water per day will assist in flushing toxins, as will steam baths and high aerobic exercise.

Developer

A product which oxidises artificial colour pigment.

Deviated septum

A condition in which the septum (the wall inside the nose that divides it into two sides) is not located in the middle of the nose where it should be. The condition is commonly treatable with surgery.

Dexamethosone

A steroid anti-inflammatory which sometimes causes hair growth.

DHT (Dihydrotestosterone)

DHT is a male hormone that is suggested to be the main cause for the miniaturisation of the hair follicle and for hair loss. DHT is formed when the male hormone testosterone interacts with the enzyme 5-alpha reductase.

Diabetes

A disease where the body improperly produces insulin sometimes linked to excess hair growth.

Diametre

A measurement across the width of the hair.

Diastema

A space between two teeth, usually the front two teeth.

Diathermy

Another name for Thermolysis.

Diazoxide

A drug sometimes linked to excess hair growth.

Diet

The deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake.

Diffusers

An adapter you put on the end of your hair dryer; it’s generally circular with a number of pins sticking out from it. The diffuser spreads out the air flow from your hair dryer so you don’t get the full force of the air, meaning a gentler drying process.

Dilantin

A drug sometimes linked to excess hair growth.

Dimethicone

Detangling aid which conditions, protects against humidity, adds shine.

Diode

A semi-conductive material which mainly lets energy travel one direction and not the other. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are used for the numeric displays on microwaves and VCRS as well as for lasers.

Diplopia

Double vision.

Direct current

Also referred to as DC, it is a type of electrical energy that travels in one direction. The other type is alternating current (AC). Direct current is used in the Galvanic Electrolysis method to cause a chemical reaction in the hair follicle.

Discomfort

Varies greatly by individual and body area. Electrolysis is generally considered most painful, followed by laser, plucking, waxing and finally pulse light sources. Body areas most prone to discomfort are underneath the nostrils, around the lips, and the bikini zone.

Dislocation

A dislocation occurs when extreme force is put on a ligament causing the two bone ends to separate. Dislocations can also affect a joint, the point where two or more bones come together. The joint is created as a “ball-and-socket” joint. A dislocated joint causes the head of the bone (ball) to partially or completely come out of the socket.

Distorted hair follicles

A relatively rare condition in which the follicle is not straight. This condition can make waxing and electrolysis more difficult and can lead to ingrown hairs and is very successfully treated using pulsed light.

Donor egg cycle

The procedure, when an embryo is formed from the egg of one woman (the donor) and then transferred to another woman who is unable to use her own eggs (the recipient). The donor relinquishes all parental rights to any resulting offspring.

Donor site

The site where hair roots are taken from during transplant surgery.

Dpoble-blind

A clinical testing method in which neither patient nor doctor knows what medication or procedure is being used.

Dreadlocks

A hairstyle in which the hair is encouraged to matte and form a cylindrical, rope-like pattern, naturally or through manipulation. Dreadlocks may take several months to well over a year to form and are considered a permanent style. In order to remove dreadlocks, one must cut them.

Drug treatment

Excess hair can be increased or decreased by certain drugs. These drugs often affect hormonal levels. Consult a physician if a drug seems to be causing increased hair growth.

Dry brush

A brushing of the skin with a natural-bristle brush to remove dead skin and impurities while stimulating circulation and the lymph system. It's often used in the preparation of the body for massages, wraps or body masks.

Dutasteride

A medication under development by Glaxo-Welcome for the treatment of BPH, which is a dual inhibitor of the 5-Alpa Reductase enzymes responsible for converting Tostosterone to DHT.

Dynamic cooling

A method of epidermal cooling which cools the skin with super-cooled liquid immediately before a laser pulse is applied.

Dysmenorrhea

Painful menstruation; may be a sign of endometriosis.

E

Ears

A common place for hair removal in older males. Only hair on the outer ear should be treated, and never inside the ear canal due to risk of infection.

Eccrine gland

A medical term for sweat gland. These tiny pores do not contain hair follicles.

Ectopic pregnancy

A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants in a location outside of the uterus—usually in the fallopian tube, the ovary, or the abdominal cavity. Ectopic pregnancy is a dangerous condition that must receive prompt treatment.

Eczema

A skin condition characterized by itchy, irritated, inflamed skin. Eczema comes in many forms and can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergies, environmental factors or family history. The raised, inflamed skin can appear anywhere on your body, including your face, legs, arms or neck. Also referred to as Contact Dermatitis.

Edema (Oedema)

A medical term for swelling.

Efficacy

A term meaning how well or effectively a cosmetic device works.

Egg

A female reproductive cell, also referred to as an Oocyte or Ovum.

Egg donation

See donor egg cycle

Egg retrieval (oocyte retrieval)

A surgical procedure to collect the eggs contained in the ovarian follicles.

Ejaculate

Semen discharged during the process of ejaculation.

Ejaculation

The expulsion of seminal fluid from the urethra of the penis during orgasm.

Elasticity

The hair’s ability to stretch without breaking and then return to its original shape.

Elastin

A protein found with collagen in the dermis that is responsible for giving structure to your skin and organs.

Electric tweezer

A device that removes hair by grasping hairs above the skin’s surface with an electrified tweezer. FDA has stated that no electric tweezers have shown evidence that they can perform permanent hair removal.

Electrocoagulation

The use of heat generated by electricity to change tissue from a fluid to a semi-solid, similar to cooking an egg. Electrocoagulation is the operating method behind flash thermolysis.

Electrode

In hair removal, a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves the body. An electrolysis needle is an electrode.

Electrology

The practice of hair removal through the use of electrified needles, invented in the 1870’s. Electrologist is a practitioner of Electrology.

Electrolysis

In hair removal, the practice of epilation (hair removal) with electrified needles. There are three basic methods for electrolysis: galvanic (chemical), thermolysis (heat), and blend.

Electromyogram (EMG)

A test to evaluate nerve and muscle function

Embryo

An egg that has been fertilized by a sperm and undergone one or more divisions.

Embryo transfer

Placement of embryos into a woman's uterus through the cervix after in vitro fertilization.

Embryologist

A highly trained scientist specializing in reproductive laboratory procedures.

EMLA

A prescription topical anaesthetic used by some clients of laser and electrolysis to reduce and eliminate pain.

Emollients

Ingredients that soften or smooth.

Emulsifier

A thickening agent and/or binding agent added to products to change their physical composition (joins two or more ingredients together). For example, it can turn a lotion into a cream.

Enamel

A hard, white outer layer of the tooth that covers and protects the dentin.

Endocrine system

A group of glands which maintain the body’s internal environment through the production of hormones. Imbalances in this system can sometimes lead to increased or decreased hair. Glands in the endocrine system include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, and testes

Endocrinology

The study of the body's hormone secreting glands.

Endodontics

See Root Canal Treatment

Endometriosis

A medical condition involving the presence of tissue similar to the uterine lining in locations outside of the uterus, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and abdominal cavity, which may contribute to infertility.

Endometrium

The lining of the uterus that grows thick each month and is lost through menstruation or remains intact to nurture an embryo if conception takes place.

Energy density

Term used to measure the output energy for Lasers and Pulsed Light Sources. Quoted in J/cm2 (Joules per square centimetre). See Fluence.

Enzyme

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e. accelerate) and control the rates of chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are referred to as Substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are extremely selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.

Ephelides

See FRECKLES

Epidermis

The thin outer layer of the skin. The epidermis is also the thinnest layer, responsible for protecting you from the harsh environment. The epidermis is made up of five layers of its own: stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum and stratum corneum.

Epilation

The removal of hair below the skin’s surface (as opposed to depilation). Epilation methods include plucking, waxing, electrolysis and laser.

Erythema

A medical term for the redness that sometimes follows hair removal and skin rejuvenation.

Eschar

A small temporary scab that occurs sometimes after electrolysis, especially after overtreatment.

Essential fatty acids (EFA)

EFA preserve the resilience and flexibility of your hair. It’s common for hair products to contain natural or synthetic EFA’s like cetyl alcohol.

Essential oil

The essence of a plant, removed by compressing, steaming, dissolving or distilling. These oils produce the strongest odours, flavours, or medicinal properties when used in a product.

Estrogen (Oestrogen)

A female sex hormone produced by the ovary. One of a group of hormonal steroid compounds that promote the development of female secondary sex characteristics. Sometimes linked to increased hair growth.

Exfoliate

To remove the top layer of skin. Chemical peels and dermabrasion are examples of methods in which the skin is exfoliated.

Exfoliation

A process by which the top layer of dead skin cells is sloughed off the face or body whether by dry-brushing, scrubs, or other exfoliation techniques. Reveals healthier, newer skin underneath.

Extension

The pieces of real or synthetic hair weaved close to the scalp in order to achieve greater length and/or fullness.

Extract

An herbal concentrate produced by separating the essential or active part of an herb into a solvent material.

Eye lift

See blepharoplasty

Eyelashes

Protective hairs on the eyelid. Some people get ingrown hairs here, which should only be treated under a physician’s care, preferably an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).

F

Face lift

Surgical procedure that lifts and stretches the patient’s skin to provide a firmer more youthful look. Does not improve appearance of the skin itself. Some face lift patients require hair removal under and behind the ears following this procedure, since hair-bearing skin ends up being moved behind the ear. See rhytidectomy

Fallopian tubes

Ducts through which eggs travel to the uterus from the ovary after they are released from a follicle. This is where fertilization normally occurs inside the body when sperm swims up the tube and meets the egg.

Fango mud

A high mineralized mud used in wraps, or facials to eliminate toxins and increase blood circulation.

Fascia

A type of connective tissue used in lip augmentation to produce fuller lips. This product is made from human donor tissue.

Fashion shade

A basic colour with added tone.

Feathering

Feathering is a cutting technique hairdressers use to take hard lines out of the hair. By cutting into the hair softer lines are created.

Femur

Thighbone.

Fertilization

The penetration of the egg by the sperm and the resulting combination of genetic material before an embryo is formed.

Fetus

The unborn offspring from the eighth week after conception to the moment of birth. Also referred to as foetus.

Fibroblasts

Cells within the extracellular matrix that produce new collagen molecules when stimulated.

Fibroid

A fibrous non-malignant tumour in the uterus. May affect fertility.

Fibromyalgia (fibrositis)

A chronic, widespread pain in muscles and soft tissues surrounding the joints throughout the body.

Finasteride

The generic name of the brand name drug Proscar. A drug that binds with the type 2 5-Alpha Reductase enzyme to reduce the amount of DHT in the prostate and serum. Proscar is manufactured by Merck and is FDA approved for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement. More recently 1mg tablets of Finasteride have been marketed under the brand name Propecia as a treatment for hair loss.

Finishing spray

A hairspray with medium hold used on a finished style to maintain its shape and hold.

Fissure sealants

A thin plastic protective film painted on the chewing surfaces of back teeth. Children receive the greatest benefit from sealants as the chewing surfaces of a child's teeth are most susceptible to cavities and the least benefited by fluoride.

Fluence

Term used to measure the output energy, for Lasers and Pulsed Light Sources, which is delivered to tissue. Quoted in J/cm2 (Joules per square centimetre).

Fluoride treatment

Fluoride treatments help to strengthen the teeth externally, while the supplements are more helpful for the internal development of the teeth. As the teeth do get topical (external) benefit from fluoride-containing toothpastes, the over-the-counter (non prescription) fluoride rinses are generally not necessary. Dentists may recommend these rinses for children that, for a variety of reasons, may be especially prone to developing cavities. The non prescription rinses are also helpful in adults who are cavity prone.

Fly-away hair

Thin hair that is charged by static and is a particular problem with straight looks as the hair just won’t lie properly and can spoil your look. A quick way I’ve found to lessen the problem is to pass a silk scarf over the hair and they’ll all lie flat… magic!

Follicle

1) A fluid-filled structure in the ovaries that contains a developing egg. 2) A pore in the skin from which a hair grows. The hair follicle houses the root of the hair.

Follicle sheath

Protects the hair during its growth stage.

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates egg maturation in the ovaries.

Follicular hair transplants

One of the latest technique for conducting hair transplants where surgeons harvest hair from naturally growing sections.

Follicular unit

Groupings of hair that grow together and share the same blood supply.

Folliculitis

A common disorder characterised by inflammation of the hair follicle. Also referred to as Pseudofolliculitis Barbae (PFB) or Tinea Barbae. Appearance of raised lumps and a rash. Prevalent in Type V and VI males.

Four-handed or Synchronised massage also referred to as Balinese massage

A massage administered by two therapists working in synchronized movements along the body.

Fracture

A break in a bone.

Fragmentation (of embryos)

Sometimes when a cell divides in the pre-implantation embryo it is not a clean split and small fragments of cell are lost. Microscopically, this gives the embryo a poorer appearance, leading to a lower grade. Fragmented embryos are less likely to implant than those without any fragmentation. We will always choose the least fragmented embryos for transfer.

Fragrance

Any natural or synthetic substance or substances use solely to impart a sweet or pleasant smell (odour) to a cosmetic product.

Fragrance-free

Products so labelled may still contain small amounts of fragrances to mask the fatty odour of soap or other unpleasant odours.

Freckle

A light or moderately brown spot that appears on the skin as a result of exposure to sunlight. Caused by small clumps of coagulated melanin. Freckles are most common in people with fair complexions. Also referred to as freckel, frekle, frekel.

Freezing spray

A hairspray with the firmest hold used to maintain style of hard to hold hair.

Frozen embryo cycle

An ART cycle in which frozen (cryopreserved) embryos are thawed and transferred to the woman.

Fusion

The process of attaching small pieces of human hair with a special adhesive and a thermal gun. This is a hair to hair process, no tracks are required. This method allows for free movement of hair extensions.

G

Gamete

A reproductive cell and either a sperm or an egg.

Ganglion cysts

Non-cancerous, fluid-filled cysts are common masses or lumps in the hand and usually found on the back of the wrist.

Gel

Jelly like material formed by the coagulation of a liquid. Semi-solid emulsion that liquefies when applied to the skin.

Gene therapy

A treatment method which involves the manipulation of the genetic makeup.

Generic

Pertaining to a substance, product or drug that is not protected by trademark. It is identical in chemical composition but not necessarily equivalent in therapeutic effect.

Gestation

The period of time from conception to birth.

Gestational carrier (Gestational surrogate)

A woman who carries an embryo that was formed from the egg of another woman. The gestational carrier usually has a contractual obligation to return the infant to its intended parents.

Gestational sac

A fluid-filled structure that develops within the uterus early in pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, a gestational sac contains a developing fetus

Gingivae

See Gums

Glabella

The space/area between the eyebrows.

Glaucoma

Increased intraocular pressure that can result in optic nerve damage and loss of sight.

Glycerin

A humectant which absorbs moisture from the air to keep hair moist.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

A substance released from the hypothalamus in a pulsatile manner approximately every 90 minutes. This hormone acts on the pituitary gland enabling it to secrete LH and FSH, which stimulate the gonads.

Gonadotropins

Hormones that control reproductive function. Also referred to as Human menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH).

Gout

A result of a defect in body chemistry (such as uric acid in the joint fluid), this painful condition most often attacks small joints, especially the big toe. It can usually be controlled with medication and changes in diet.

Grafting

A procedure in which healthy skin and/or muscle is moved from one area of the body to another area damaged by disease or injury.

Grey hair

Hair that has lost its pigment.

Gum (periodontal) disease

Also referred to as Gingivitis or Periodontitis. You may not realize that red or bleeding gums, tooth sensitivity and bad breath are warning signs of gum disease—a serious infection that, left untreated, can lead to tooth loss.

Gum reshaping

Excessive or uneven gums can be corrected with a simple cosmetic surgical procedure or gingivoplasty resulting in a more even, pleasing smile.

Gynecomastia

Excessive development of the male breasts.

H

Hair cloning

A technique under development which could make an unlimited crop of donor hair available for transplanting.

Hair extensions

Used to add volume or length to your hair by bonding synthetic or real hair at your roots.

Hair growth cycle

Hair passes through a series of cycles referred to as Anagen (growing phase), Catagen (resting phase) and Telogen (dormant phase).

Hair integration

A modern term used to describe hair weaving.

Hair weaving

A process by which a hair piece is attached to existing hair on the head through braiding or a weaving process.

Hair weft clips

To attach hair wefts by clips. Clips are placed in the hair and snapped close. Wefts are held securely in place.

Hammam

A Turkish or Middle-Eastern communal bathing house with various rooms at different temperatures. Unless you're in Turkey, northern Africa or the Middle East, the term hammam is usually used to refer to ceramic-tiled steam rooms.

Hammertoe

A permanent sideways bend in the middle toe joint.

Hatching (of embryos)

Before an embryo can implant in the uterus, it must first escape from its outer shell (Zona Pellucida); this process is referred to as Hatching.

Heat exhaustion

A form of heat-related illness that is more severe than heat cramps and results from a loss of water and salt in the body. It occurs in conditions of extreme heat and excessive sweating without adequate fluid and salt replacement. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body is unable to cool itself properly. If left untreated, heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke.

Heatclamps

A heat gun that is used to seal synthetic hair. Used for creating warlocks and other styles.

Heel spur

A bone growth on the heel bone.

Hemangioma

A type of birthmark characterized by concentrations of small blood vessels. They commonly referred to as strawberry marks and often disappear after a few months or years.

Hena

Derived from the henna plant, a vegetable dye made from its leaves and stems into a powder. Traditionally, it imparts a reddish cast to the hair by coating it. Clear henna enhances shine. Henna cannot be dyed over since it coats the outer hair shaft, affecting the penetration of the chemical colorant.

Herbal wrap

A treatment in which moisture, heat and herbal essences penetrate the skin while the body is wrapped in plastic sheets and blankets to maintain heat and maximize benefits. It is intended to promote muscle relaxation and eliminate toxins.

High lip line

Refers to the area where the widest smile reveals the gum tissue above the teeth.

Highlights

The subtle lifting of colour in specific sections of hair.

Hirsutism

Excessive hair growth accompanied by enlarged hair follicles and increased pigmentation. Often found in woman with excess androgens.

Homeopathy

A natural system of medicine that uses highly diluted doses of substances (plant or mineral product for instance) to stimulate the body's own healing response.

Host uterus (Gestational carrier or Surrogate)

A couple's embryo may be transferred into another woman's uterus who then carries the pregnancy to term and returns the baby to the genetic parents immediately after birth.

Hot stone therapy

The application of smooth, basalt mineral stones are heated and combined with oil for this massage designed to relieve muscle stiffness and fatigue while restoring body energy.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

This hormone is produced during early pregnancy and keeps the corpus luteum producing progesterone. hCG is also used to trigger ovulation during fertility treatments.

Humectant

An ingredient in skin or hair products that draws moisture from the air to moisturize.

Humerus

The bone of the upper arm.

Humidity

The amount of moisture available in the air.

Hyaloid canal

A narrow passageway that allows blood to flow through the eye.

Hydrate

To add moisture to the skin.

Hydro tub

Short for Hydrotherapy tub, a hydro tub combines water with air jets and provides underwater body massage to relieve tension in muscles and joints.

Hydrogen peroxide

Used to oxidise (expand) artificial colour molecules. Can also lighten natural colour pigment.

Hydrolyzed keratin

Basically corresponds to human hair, contains the “structural protein” of hair, repairs damage. Active ingredient in Liquid Hair Line.

Hydrotherapy

Treatments using various water techniques incorporating underwater massage, jet propulsion or multi-jet showers.

Hydroxypropyl guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride

All essential ingredient that adds moisture to the hair.

Hygienist

Dental hygienists are licensed oral health professionals, who focus on preventing and treating oral diseases — both to protect teeth and gums and also to protect patients' total health. See oral hygiene

Hyperopia

Farsightedness.

Hyperpigmentation

A skin condition in which there is excessive pigmentation, often seen as dark spots on the skin. Result of over-excitation of melanocytes. Can be seen as sun-induced freckles or melasma.

Hyperstimulation

The stimulation of multiple ovulations with fertility drugs.

Hyperthyroidism

Overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. This leads to an increase in metabolism and can cause estrogen to ‘burn up' too rapidly, thereby interfering with ovulation.

Hypertrophic scar

A raised and red scar, similar to a keloid scar, but different in that it stays within the boundaries of the injury site

Hypodermis

The fatty layer of skin, home of sweat glands and fat and collagen cells. The hypodermis is responsible for conserving your body's heat and protecting your vital inner organs.

Hypopigmentation

A skin condition in which there is a lack of pigmentation. Caused by an absence of melanocytes, whitening of the skin. Examples of hypopigmentation include vitiligo, albinism, pigmentation loss as a result of skin damage.

Hypothalamus

A part of the brain that is the “hormonal regulation centre.” The hypothalamus is located adjacent to and just above the pituitary gland.

Hypothyroidism

Underproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. The resulting lowered metabolism can interfere with the normal breakdown of hormones and may lead to lethargy. Women may suffer from elevated levels of prolactin and estrogen, which can interfere with fertility.

Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus.

Hysterosalpingogram

A procedure used to assess the anatomy of the cavity of the uterus and the fallopian tubes.

Hysteroscopy

A thin telescope is passed through the cervix and is used to visualize the inside of the uterus.

I

“Instant” orthodontics

The art of using ceramic veneers to “instantly” (sometimes even within one week) align crooked teeth. See orthodontics

ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)

A procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg; this procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems.

Implant

A titanium tooth root. This provides the support a crown needs to withstand the pressures of chewing. Implants help reverse the negative impact of missing teeth in a variety of ways, restores and maintains the natural bite, prevents unnatural stress on the other teeth, keeps opposing teeth in their proper place, prevents tilting and shifting of adjacent teeth and enhances your smile, speech and chewing function.

Incisor

Central or lateral front teeth with cutting edges (4 upper and 4 lower).

Indentation

A hollow or pocket in the skin.

Indian head massage

An Ayurvedic therapy incorporating medicated oils applied during massage to head and scalp. It increases circulation, exfoliates the scalp and nourishes the hair.

Induced or therapeutic abortion

A surgical or other medical procedure used to end a pregnancy.

Inflammation

A normal reaction to injury or disease, which results in swelling, pain, and stiffness.

Infusion

Tea made by steeping an herb’s leaves or flowers in hot water.

Ingrown hair

A hair that does not break the surface of the skin, and grows back inward. Can be severe and cause inflammation, soreness and infection.

Inlay

Porcelain, resin, or gold filling (made to fit a prepared cavity) bonded in place to help restore a decayed or broken tooth.

Interlocking

A method in which hair is maintained or tightened using a tool.

Ionic

Process where water molecules are broken down by ions into smaller droplets. This then allows the hair to absorb the moisture more easily. Ionic technology usually uses hot ceramic plates to generate the negatively charge ions

IPL (Intense pulsed light)

A treatment consisting of short pulses of light sent out through an applicator that is gently pressed against the skin. The light energy is absorbed naturally and, depending on how it is applied, can act beneficially on pigmentation in hair follicles, pigmentation in the skin, or blood lesions such as thread veins. Also referred to as ILP, intense pulse light, intense pulsed light, intense pulse lite.

Iris

The coloured part of the eye. The iris is partly responsible for regulating the amount of light permitted to enter the eye.

Is sometimes linked to excess hair growth, especially in the extremely obese and extremely anorexic.

Isopropyl lanolate

Synthetic moisturizer.

IUI (intrauterine insemination)

A type of fertility treatment in which sperm is washed and injected directly into the uterus around the time of ovulation.

IVF (in vitro fertilization)

An ART procedure that involves removing eggs from a woman's ovaries and fertilizing them outside her body. The resulting embryos are then transferred into the woman's uterus through the cervix.

J

Japanese soaking tub

A deep, round soaking tub for two or more structured to immerse the entire body for full body relaxation.

Jet blitz

In alternate streams of hot and cold, pressurized sea water is administered via a controlled hose. Each area of the body is massaged in turn with the water to help move lymph, increase circulation and break down fatty tissue and cellulite.

Joint

Where the ends of two or more bones meet.

Jojoba oil

Contains superior properties to keep skin and hair soft. It is beneficial to dry hair.

Joule

A unit of energy. Describes energy output for pulsed light based systems.

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)

A form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger that causes inflammation and stiffness of joints for more than six weeks. Unlike adult rheumatoid arthritis, which is chronic and lasts a lifetime, children often outgrow juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. However, the disease can affect bone development in the growing child.

K

Kanekalon

gs and hairpieces. It’s popularity is due to its ability to retain its shape after washing, and also to the fine texture of the fibre, making it a desirable choice for simulating the texture of human hair. There are different qualities of Kanekalon fibre.

Karyotyping

A test performed to analyze chromosomes for the presence of genetic defects.

Keloid scar

A type of scar that continues to grow beyond what is needed at the site of an injury. This type of scar is caused by too much collagen forming while the skin is being repaired. The tendency to develop keloid scars is genetic.

Keloids

A type of raised darkened scar, more common with dark skin. Due to a defect in the healing process.

Keratin

A fibrous protein found in hair, nails, and skin. This dominant protein is your skin's main material, as well as in hair and nails. Keratin is what forms the rigidity of your skin.

Keratitis

Inflammation of the cornea.

Klinefelter's syndrome

A genetic abnormality characterized by having one Y (male) chromosome and two X (female) chromosomes. This condition may cause a fertility problem.

Kojic acid

A skin treatment product derived from a fungus that studies have shown is effective as a lightening agent and in inhibiting the production of melanin.

Kukuli

This is a traditional native earth house burrowed into the ground and covered with branches, leaves and natural shrubbery. It represents female energy.

L

L-ascorbic acid

L-ascorbic acid is a form of Vitamin C.

Laconium

Commonly referred to as a mild form of the Finnish sauna. According to the Spa & Wellness Centre at the Four Seasons Doha, the Laconium was invented by the Romans to ease the muscles of its warriors. Using special tiles to retain and radiate warmth, it offers a unique experience that involves gentle heat of no more than 131 degrees Fahrenheit (55 degree Celsius). Similar to the dry heat of the Mediterranean sun, the effect is simultaneously revitalizing and calming, increasing circulation and ridding the body of impurities, while strengthening the immune system. The lower temperature makes it easier to tolerate than a traditional sauna so guests can lounge longer and unlike lying in the sun, your skin won’t be exposed to any damaging UV rays.

Laminates (veneers)

Thin, custom-made mouldings that cover the fronts of unattractive teeth. They are crafted from lifelike, high-tech materials to portray a bright, natural smile. If you are looking to improve your smile, custom-fitted veneers can provide the answer.

Laminating

Applying a thin porcelain or composite resin veneer to a tooth.

Lanugo hairs

Hairs of the fetus. Are usually shed during the 7th month of fetal life following primary follicular genesis (the development of primary hair follicles which usually remain inactive until the neo-natal period).

Laparoscopy

A surgical procedure in which a fibre optic instrument (a laparoscope) is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to view the inside of the pelvis.

Laser

An acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A commonly used tool for cosmetic and surgical procedures.

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)

The ligament that gives stability to the outer knee.

Lateral epicondylitis

Pain caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm. Also referred to as tennis elbow.

Lauryldimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed

A conditioning agent in shampoos, which helps detangle the hair.

Layering

Layering is a technique used by hairdressers to change the thickness of the hair, creating either a thinning or thicker appearance. In this way the hair can be given a fuller appearance, more texture and movement.

Lens (crystalline lens)

The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

Lentigines

See age spots

Lentigo

A flat, discoloured area of skin similar to a freckle. Sun induced lentigines (plural of lentigo) are referred to a Solar Lentigines.

Leucotrichia

Refers to a congenital absence of pigment in a lock of hairs which will show as grey/white. Several generations of some families have been known to exhibit this dominant trait.

Ligaments

A white, shiny, flexible band of fibrous tissue that binds joints together and connects various bones and cartilage.

Lip augmentation

A procedure done to improve deflated, drooping or sagging lips, correct their symmetry or to reduce fine lines and wrinkles around them. This is often done through injections or implants.

Lipid layer

Lipids are part of the structure of the hair and also form a protective barrier. They are composed of EFA’s amongst other complicated scientific things.

Lipoplasty

See Liposuction

Liposuction

A cosmetic procedure in which a special instrument called a cannula is used to break up and suck out fat from the body. This procedure is also referred to as Lipoplasty.

Liquid hair

Strengthens and rebuilds the structure of the hair.

Live birth

The delivery of one or more babies with any signs of life.

Lomi-lomi

A Polynesian healing treatment incorporating long and broad massage strokes, as well as a rocking motion. This treatment can be quite vigorous, as the therapist uses forearms and elbows as well as hands.

Low lip line

Refers to the area where the widest smile barely reveals the bottom edges of the upper front teeth.

Lubricant

An oil or oil rich cream or lotion designed to lubricate the skin and slow moisture loss.

Lubricates

Makes smooth or slippery by using oil to overcome friction.

Luteal phase

Post-ovulatory phase of a woman's cycle. The corpusluteum produces progesterone, which cause the uterine lining to thicken to support the implantation and growth of the embryo.

Luteal phase defect (or deficiency)

A condition that occurs when the uterine lining does not develop adequately due to inadequate progesterone stimulation or because of the inability of the uterine lining to respond to progesterone stimulation. LPD may prevent embryonic implantation or cause an early abortion.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

A pituitary hormone that stimulates the ovary. When estrogen reaches a critical peak in mid-cycle, the pituitary releases a surge of LH (the LH spike) that releases an egg from the follicle (causes an egg to be ovulated). Ovulation detection kits detect the sudden increase in LH signalling that ovulation is about to occur, usually within 24-36 hours.

Luvimer

Flexible resin.

Lymphatic drainage therapy

A hands-on method of draining the lymph while increasing the natural flow of lymphatic fluid to allow the body to eliminate toxins. Techniques are performed with hands and fingers simulating gentle, wave-like movements that allow lymph to flow effectively.

M

Macrodactyly

A condition that affects children in which the fingers or toes grow abnormally large.

Macula

The portion of the eye that allows us to see fine details clearly.

Macular degeneration

Degeneration in the macular region of the retina that results in decreased central vision and sometimes, in blindness.

Macular stain

A small birthmark that is often nothing more than a small, mild, red blemish on the skin.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

Male factor

Any cause of infertility due to low sperm count or problems with sperm function that make it difficult for a sperm to fertilize an egg under normal conditions.

Malocclusion

A bad bite caused by incorrect positions of the upper or lower teeth.

Mammoplasty

Any reconstructive or cosmetic surgical procedure that alters the size or shape of the breast

Mastectomy

The surgical removal of part or the entire breast.

Mastopexy

Also referred to as breast lift, this procedure removes excess skin in order to lift up sagging or drooping breasts.

Matte

A non-shiny surface that absorbs light; a dead or dull finish.

Medial collateral ligament (MCL)

The ligament that gives stability to the inner knee.

Medial epicondylitis

Pain caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist toward the palm. Also referred to as golfer's elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tennis elbow.

Medulla

The medulla is a central zone of cells usually only present in large thick hairs.

Melanin

Natural substance that gives colour (pigment) to hair and skin.

Melanocytes

A pigment producing cell found in the skin, hair and eyes that gives them their colour.

Melanoma

The most dangerous form of skin cancer. Melanoma can spread rapidly and be fatal if not treated or detected.

Melasma

A condition in which pigmentation of the cheeks of the face darkens into tan or brown patches. This condition occurs in half of all women during pregnancy. Dark skin discolouration on sun-exposed areas of the face and neck. Young women with brownish skin tones are at greatest risk. Also referred to as Chloasma.

Menisci

Two crescent-shaped discs of connective tissue between the bones of the knees that act as shock absorbers to cushion the lower part of the leg from the weight of the rest of the body.

Metabolism

The transformation of food into energy in the body.

Micro diffuse

The formula which distributes the spray evenly to the hair preventing overload.

Micro fine

Hair or fibre that brushes out easily.

Micro graft

A very small hair graft usually consisting of one or two hairs.

Micro linking technique

The process of attaching hair wefts without braids. The links are sewn on to the wefted hair. The user’s natural hair is pulled through and locked secure. This system is highly recommended for natural hair that is too fine or soft to hold other weave techniques.

Microdermabrasion

An intensive exfoliation process that rejuvenates the skin by utilizing ultra-fine aluminium oxide crystals to remove the upper layer of the corneal layer Also referred to as microderm, microdermibrasion, microdermebrasion, microdermbrasion, microderma.

Micropigmentation

A form of tattooing commonly used to apply permanent makeup by injecting iron oxide pigment into the middle layer of your skin (dermis).

Midline

An imaginary vertical line that divides the face into equal parts.

Mini graft

A small hair graft usually consisting of between three to ten hair roots.

Minoxidil

Minoxidil is the generic name of the brand name drug Rogaine. Rogaine is manufactured by Upjohn. Minoxidil is available in the form of a topical lotion with varying strength from 2% to 5%. Minoxidil was the first drug to be approved by the FDA for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

Miosis

Constriction of the pupil.

Miscarriage

A pregnancy ending in the spontaneous loss of the embryo or fetus before 20 weeks of gestation. Also referred to as a Spontaneous Abortion.

Moisturizer

An emollient cream used to hydrate the skin.

Monofilament

Fine, transparent nylon or silk mesh with hairs individually hand-knotted into the mesh. Allows the hair to fall naturally and gives more versatility in styling. Very suitable for persons with extensive hair loss, as the colour of the scalp underneath shows through, creating the illusion of hair growing out of your scalp.

Moor mud baths

Baths using a natural preparation that is rich in organic matter, proteins, vitamins, and trace minerals used to help relieve aches and pains. The treatment can vary from spa to spa. Sometimes the mud preparation is added to a tub of water, less frequently the entire tub is filled with the thick, rich mud that is purified after each use.

Morton's neuroma

A pinched nerve that usually causes pain between the third and fourth toes.

Morula

A stage of embryo development after 4 days of culture in vivo (inside the body). Between the 8-cell stage and the blastocyst stage of development, all the cells of the embryo merge together, this is referred to as a Morula.

Motility (of sperm)

The ability of sperm to move and swim normally.

Multi-fetal pregnancy reduction

A procedure used to decrease the number of fetuses a woman carries and improve the chances that the remaining fetuses will develop into healthy infants. Multi-fetal reductions that occur naturally are referred to as Spontaneous Reductions.

Multiple-fetus pregnancy

A pregnancy with two or more fetuses.

Multiple-infant birth

A pregnancy that results in the birth of more than one infant.

Muscular dystrophy (MD)

A broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles. MD causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time. The most common form of MD is referred to as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).

Musculoskeletal system

The complex system involving the body's muscles and skeleton, and including the joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Mydriasis

Dilation of the pupil.

Myelogram

Involves the injection of a dye or contrast material into the spinal canal; a specific X-ray study that also allows careful evaluation of the spinal canal and nerve roots.

Myopia

Nearsightedness.

Myristate

Synthetic moisturizer.

N

Natural

Ingredients extracted directly from plants, earth minerals, or animal products as opposed to being produced synthetically.

Naturopathic medicine

The study and treatment of acute or chronic medical conditions using botanical (herbs), Chinese Medicine, Nutrition and Homeopathy as a preventative course of medical intervention.

Near point of accommodation

The closest point in front of the eyes that an object may be clearly focused.

Near point of convergence

The maximum extent the two eyes can be turned inward.

Neoplasm

A tumour.

Nerve endings

Receptors which respond to touch, pain, pressure, heat and cold.

Neutralise

To cancel or reduce effect.

Nevus flammeus

See port-wine stain

Non-invasive

Procedures that do not involve tools that break the skin or physically enter the body.

Norwood scale

The most commonly used scale for the classification of hair loss.

NTI-TSS (tension suppression system)

A device that prevents medically diagnosed migraine pain, tension-type headache, and jaw disorders (TMJ), without drugs or surgery, through the reduction of trigeminally innervated muscular activity. See NTI-tss.com

Nutrient

A substance, such as a vitamin, which provides elements for the ongoing functioning of the body’s metabolic processes.

O

Occlusion

See TMJ/TMD

Ocular hypertension

High (greater than 21 mm Hg) intraocular pressure.

Onlay

Porcelain, resin, or gold filling that protects a tooth by covering the chewing surface.

Oocyte

The female reproductive cell also referred to as an egg.

Ophthalmoscopy

Examination of the internal structure of the eye.

Optic nerve

A bundle of more than one million nerve fibres that connects the retina with the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for interpreting the impulses it receives into images.

Oral hygiene

Proper oral hygiene, including flossing at least once a day and brushing twice daily, is just as important as ever to help you keep your teeth and gums healthy, along with regular (four monthly) dental hygiene appointments.

Organic

Pertaining to carbon-based compounds produced by living plants, animals or by synthetic processes. Referring to substances that are or have been alive, and therefore contain carbon molecules in their chemical structure.

Orthodontics

A specialised branch of dentistry that deals with straightening teeth. Through the use of specially designed and fitted appliances constant and gentle pressure is put on the teeth causing them to move into the desired position.

Orthokeratology

The use of contact lenses to change the shape of the cornea in order to correct refractive error.

Orthopaedic surgeon (orthopaedist)

A physician who diagnoses, treats, manages the rehabilitation process, and provides prevention protocols for patients who suffer from injury or disease in any of the components of the musculoskeletal system.

Orthopaedic surgery (orthopaedics)

The medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of injuries and diseases of the body's musculoskeletal system.

Osteoarthritis

A condition caused by wear and tear that causes inflammation of the joint, causing swelling, pain, and stiffness.

Osteoporosis

A condition that develops when bone is no longer replaced as quickly as it is removed.

Otoplasty

A surgical procedure done to correct misshaped or protruding ears.

Outer root sheath

A soft thin layer surrounding the lower two-thirds of a hair.

Ovarian cyst

A persistent fluid-filled sac inside the ovary. Cysts can produce hormones that interfere with ART cycles.

Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS)

A potentially life-threatening condition following ovulation induction treatment. OHSS arises when too many follicles develop and hCG is given to release the eggs. This condition may be prevented by withholding hCG when ultrasound monitoring indicates that there are a large number of follicles in the ovaries. IF OHSS is evident during an IVF cycle, all the embryos may be frozen at the pro nuclear stage (the day after the egg collection) and replaced at a later date when the condition has subsided as pregnancy can exacerbate the symptoms of OHSS.

Ovarian monitoring

The use of ultrasound and/or blood or urine tests to monitor follicle development and hormone production.

Ovarian stimulation

The use of drugs (oral or injected) to stimulate the ovaries to develop follicles and eggs.

Ovaries

In women, a major source of female hormones. Certain conditions involving the ovaries can lead to excess hair growth, especially polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Overtreatment

Overly aggressive treatment to remove hair which leads to temporary or permanent skin damage.

Overuse conditions

Injuries due to minor trauma involving soft-tissue injuries that affect the bone, muscles, ligaments, and/or tendons.

Ovulation

The release of an egg from an ovarian follicle.

Ovulatory dysfunction

A cause of infertility due to problems with egg production by the ovaries.

Ovum

Another name for the egg.

Oxidation colour

A colour which requires oxygen to make it work.

P

P.V.P or P.V.P/VA

A faint yellow solid, Polyvinylpyrrolidone copolymer. In cosmetics and personal care products, PVP is used in the formulation of a wide range of product types including mascara, eyeliner, hair conditioners, hair sprays, shampoos and other hair care products. Non-onic film forming and hair fixing agent. Seals and adds shine. Also referred to as Povidone or Polyvinylpyrrolidone.

PABA

An organic compound para-aminobenzoic acid. Found in sunscreen and cosmetic products that can make skin less sensitive.

Palm rolling

A technique used to smooth out the shaft of a loc by rolling it, with or without product, between the palms of the hands.

Palmitate

Synthetic moisturizer.

Panthenol

Aids detangling. Provides volume, control and shine.

Pantothenic acid

A water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). Pantothenic Acid is needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Also referred to as Vitamin B5 (a B Vitamin).

Papilla

The small area at the base of the hair root which provides nutrients needed for growth.

Paraffin poltices

These are soft, heated, compresses of paraffin wax are applied to areas of the body to relieve soreness and inflammation. This treatment is exceptionally effective in treating arthritis, joint stiffness and sports related injuries when combined with massage therapy. The soothing deep heat of the paraffin penetrates to relieve muscular pain, promote circulation and leave the body deeply relaxed.

Paraffin treatment

A treatment in which heated paraffin wax is applied to body parts (mostly feet or hands) to help eliminate toxins as well as softening the skin. Usually administered to enhance a manicure or pedicure.

Parfum

The most concentrated and most fragrant scent and therefore the most expensive.

Partial denture

A removable dental appliance that replaces some of the natural teeth.

Patch test

A test performed (usually with a hair dye or other potential allergen) on the skin 24 hours before its use to determine sensitivity.

Patella

Kneecap.

Patent

The condition of being open or unblocked (as with the fallopian tubes).

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

An infection of the pelvic organs that may lead to tubal blockage and pelvic adhesions.

Periodontal treatment

Treatment for gum disease. Often performed by gum and implant specialist or periodontist.

Perm

A solution that creates curls by restructuring your hair molecules with a chemical or heat treatment and is generally a long-lasting or permanent change to your hair.

Permanent hair reduction

Treatments, especially IPL, where the follicle is disabled by the light energy making it unable to support any more hair growth. Also referred to as permanent hair removal, permanent hair reduction, permanent hair removal, permanent hair reduction.

Permanently

Completely changing the natural colour of the hair.

PH

Percentage of Hydrogen. Used to measure acidity in cosmetic preparations.

Photo-aging

The changes that occur to the skin due to exposure to the sun. This includes wrinkles and age spots.

Photophobia

Sensitivity to light.

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

Surgical procedure using an excimer laser to change the shape of the cornea.

Pigment

Colour.

Pigmented lesion (Benign)

Variety of skin conditions mainly the result of excess melanin. Commonly referred to as Caf

Pilates

Devised by Dr. Joseph Pilates to assist dancers with damaged muscles, Pilates is a series of muscle resistant exercises incorporating precise movements. Performed on a floor mat or specially-designed equipment, the series of exercises can help strengthen and re-align the body as well as help flexibility. A number of spas and wellness centres now offer Pilates classes along with Yoga classes.

Pinguecula

Irritation caused by the degeneration of the conjunctiva.

Pituitary gland

The master gland. The pituitary gland is situated in the brain by the hypothalamus and controls all hormonal functions, including the gonads, the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland.

Plantar fascia

A long band of connecting tissue running from the heel to the ball of the foot.

Plantar warts

Warts that occur on the sole of the foot and look like calluses as a result of an infection or a specific virus.

Polar body

The discarded genetic material resulting from female germ cell division. When an egg matures it discards half of its genetic material so that the egg cell is ready to fuse with half the male genes inside a sperm. This discarded genetic material can be seen in the egg as a small round piece of cytoplasm at the edge of the egg cell. The presence of a polar body tells us whether an egg is mature or immature.

Polycystic ovaries

A condition found in women who don't ovulate, characterized by excessive production of male sex hormones (androgens) and the presence of cysts on the ovary. PCO can be without symptoms although some women who do show symptoms are said to have PCOS.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

A condition where the symptoms of having polycystic ovaries are evident. PCOS symptoms may include weight gain, acne and excessive hair growth.

Porcelain

Ceramic, tooth-coloured material that fuses at high temperatures to form a hard, enamel-like substance.

Pore

A small opening of the sweat glands of the skin.

Porosity

Ability to absorb moisture.

Port-wine stain

A type of hemangioma characterized by a mark on the skin that resembles the rich red colour of port wine. Port-wine stains are caused by an abnormal concentration of capillaries. This type of birthmark is also referred to as a Nevus Flammeus.

Posterior chamber

The back section of the eye's interior.

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

The ligament located in the centre of the knee. It controls backward movement of the tibia (shin bone).

Posterior optical segment

The portion of the eye located behind the crystalline lens, and including vitreous, choroid retina, and optic nerve.

Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD)

The separation of the vitreous from the retina.

Posteromedial shin splint

A type of shin splint that affects the back and inner part of the muscles of the shin and is caused by running and/or by wearing inappropriate footwear.

Pregnancy (biochemical)

A positive pregnancy test that shows no evidence of a gestational sac or viable fetus on ultrasound. Can be classified as a very early miscarriage.

Pregnancy (clinical)

A pregnancy documented by ultrasound that shows a gestational sac containing a viable fetus in the uterus. For ART data collection purposes, pregnancy is defined as a clinical pregnancy rather than a biochemical pregnancy (i.e., a positive pregnancy test).

Presbyopia

A form of farsightedness in which it is difficult to focus on close objects or to read.

Pressotherapy

A computer controlled compression system which operates using specialized inflatable pumps. The process focuses on moving lymph flow, starting from the ankles and moving to the upper thighs. It also increases blood circulation and helps reduce bloating and swelling by eliminating extra fluids.

Pressure point massage

Targeting specific areas of the muscles, this massage strives to release built up tension and strain.

Pro nuclear stage (2PN)

A fertilized egg (zygote). In IVF, the pro nuclear stage is the morning after the egg collection.

Probiotics

Live organisms which can be good for digestion when taken in proper amounts and combinations. Foods such as bananas, raisons and prunes are high in probiotics.

Progesterone

The hormone produced by the corpus luteum after ovulation that supports the development and maintenance of the uterine lining.

Pronuclei (PN)

The evidence of fertilization. In a normally fertilized egg, two spherical structures (pronuclei) can be seen in the middle of the egg 16-22 hours post insemination. One of the spheres contains the female genetic material and the other contains the male genetic material before they fuse to form the genes of the embryo.

Propecia

The brand name for Finestaride. The only drug approved by the FDA to treat hair loss.

Proprietary

Pertaining to a drug that is produced for profit.

Proscar

The brand name for Finestaride approved for the treatment of BPH.

Prosthesis

An artificial body part replacement.

Protein treatment

A treatment used on the hair. Designed to add strength and elasticity to the hair by adding protein to the cortex.

Psoriasis

Chronic skin inflammation characterised by frequent episodes of redness, itching and thick, dry scales.

Ptosis

The drooping of a body part, especially the eyelids or the breasts.

Punch graft

The old-fashioned way of removing grafts for hair transplants, usually carried out using an instrument referred to as a Trephine.

Pupil

The dark centre in the middle of the iris through which light passes to the back of the eye.

Pupillary response

The constriction or dilation of the pupil as stimulated by light.

Q

Q-switch

A device that produces short intense bursts of energy from a laser.

R

R.I.C.E.

Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation.

Radial keratotomy

A surgical procedure in which incisions are made into the epithelium of the cornea to correct refractive error.

Radionuclide bone scan

A nuclear imaging technique that uses a very small amount of radioactive material, which is injected into the patient's bloodstream to be detected by a scanner. This test shows blood flow to the bone and cell activity within the bone.

Radius

The shorter of the two bones of the forearm.

Raindrop therapy

Certain therapeutic essential oils are systematically applied to both sides of the spinal column in a set layered method then massaged gentle over the back to identify acidity or alkaline in the body. Acidity might mean you have a lot of free radicals floating within that could comprise the immune system making you more susceptible to colds and flues. An alkaline state signals a healthier you and a boosted immune system. The treatment assists with medical conditions such as arthritis, depression and nervous system disorders.

Recipient site

The bald or thinning area where hair grafts or plugs a transplanted.

Reflexology

Originating in Egypt and China, this ancient healing therapy utilizes pressure points in the hands and feet to stimulate corresponding organs within the body. This stimulation taps into energy resources, thus creating a balance of the body's energy. The practice has been effective in strengthening the immune system and identifying potential weaknesses within the body.

Refractive error

The degree to which light reaches the back of the eye — myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism.

Reiki

A gentle Japanese technique that employs the laying on of hands to align the individual charkas to assists with the proper flow of energy.

Relax

To chemically straighten the hair to gently smooth out curl, reduce frizz, or create a straight style.

Relaxer

A chemical process by which the hair is permanently straightened. New-growth areas have to be maintained via ‘touch-ups’ to continue the straightened pattern. A relaxer penetrates the cortex and breaking the hairs’ natural chemical bonds which originally caused it to be curly. Once these chemical bonds are broken, they cannot be repaired so the hair is unable to return to its natural state.

Remi/Remy hair

Refers to human hair (usually Indian in origin) which has been harvested from root to end, with all of the cuticle going in the same direction. It is different from Virgin hair as it may be coloured or permed, but has not had the cuticle removed. It is generally soft and silky, and is used in making higher quality wigs, extensions, and hair systems.

Resin-bonded bridge

Thin metal or glass fibre-reinforced bridge requiring slight or no reduction of anchor teeth. Also referred to as Maryland Bridge, it is usually used a provisional restoration.

Resistant

Stops or opposes treatment.

Retin-A

Retinoic Acid, a compound that is often used to improve the appearance and texture of the skin.

Retin-A or Tretinoin

Retin-A is a brand name for a topical gel or cream normally used in the treatment of acne.

Retina

The light-sensitive nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. The retina sense light and creates impulses that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain.

Retinal detachment

Separation of the retina from the epithelium layer and from blood supply.

Retinol

A derivative of Vitamin A commonly found in many skin care creams.

Retrograde ejaculation

A male infertility problem in which sperm travel into the bladder instead of out of the penis. This is due to a failure in the sphincter muscle at the base of the bladder. Medical intervention is necessary in order to conceive.

Rheumatoid arthritis

An inflammatory disease that involves the lining of the joint (synovium). The inflammation often affects the joints of the hands and the feet and tends to occur equally on both sides of the body.

Rheumatologist

A physician who specializes in the treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases that may affect joints, muscles, bone, skin and other tissues.

Rhinoplasty

A cosmetic procedure used to enhance or change the appearance of the nose. Rhinoplasty is commonly referred to as a nose job.

Rhytidectomy

Commonly referred to as a facelift, this surgical procedure is done to eliminate the sagging, drooping, and wrinkled skin of the face and neck.

Rogaine/Regaine

The brand name for Minoxidil. A topical hair growth solution for hair loss.

Roman bath houses

A Roman bath house normally has a number of hot and cold areas including warm salt- water pools, cold water pools, steam rooms and ice-water showers. A mosaic of architectural beauty that dates back to 200 B.C., Roman bath houses are believed to have been one of the first known places of treatment for the immune and circulatory systems.

Root canal treatment (Endodontics)

A sequence of treatment for the pulp of a tooth which results in the elimination of infection and protection of the decontaminated tooth from future microbial invasion. Inside your tooth, running like a thread through the root, is the pulp. When the pulp is diseased or injured, the pulp tissue dies. If you do not remove it, your tooth gets infected and this causes intense pain and can lead to a dental abscess. After the dentist removes the pulp, the root canal is cleaned and sealed off to protect it. Then a crown is placed over your tooth to help make it stronger.

Rosacea

A skin disease of unknown causes involving chronic inflammation of the cheeks, nose, chin, forehead or eyelids. It may cause redness, vascularity, swelling or hyperplasia (increased size of tissue), or skin eruptions. Rosacea cannot be cured, but treatment should be sought since the condition can worsen over time if not treated correctly or promptly. Also referred to as Acne Rosacea, Adult Acne, Rosecea, Roasacea, Rosasea, Rosesea, Rosacia, Rosecia.

Rough blow dry

A means just to remove the moisture from wet hair, i.e. just to dry the hair without styling. To try and style your hair whilst trying to blow it dry from wet can take ages, so rough blow dry your hair and then worry about the style.

Rubber dam

Thin rubber sheet applied to teeth in order to control moisture during dental procedures. It also forms a protective barrier for the patient when silver-mercury fillings are removed.

Ruby

Commonly used laser for hair and tattoo removal.

Russian bath

A wooden room heated by rocks that radiate intense heat, while ice cold water is provided to douse your entire body which both eliminates toxins, while encouraging blood circulation, in addition to boosting your immune system.

S

Sacrum

Bone in the lower back

Salicylic acid

See beta hydroxy acid

Sallowness

A term used to describe a yellowish colour of the skin.

Salpingectomy

Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes.

Saw palmetto

A natural herb that has been shown to be an effective antiandrogen.

Schizotrichia

See Trichoptilosis

Sclera

The white visible portion of the eyeball. The muscles that move the eyeball are attached to the sclera.

Scleroderma

A very serious disease of the skin and the body's connective tissue that causes thickening and hardening of the skin and can cause hair loss over the affected areas.

Sclerotherapy

A medical procedure used to eliminate varicose veins and "spider veins." During the procedure, an injection of a solution (generally sodium chloride) in placed directly into the vein.

Scoliosis

A lateral, or sideways, curvature and rotation of the back bones (vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.

Scotch hose therapy

Scotch Hose an invigorating hydrotherapy treatment. The use of alternating warm and cool water, through a high velocity water wand (or hose), is controlled by a body treatment specialist. Scotch Hose units work to speed up the client's metabolism through hot and cold pressurized water and direct contact to the client's specific points of pressure.

Scotoma

An area of partial or complete loss of vision surrounded by an area of normal vision.

Scrunch dry

A technique for drying your hair which creates a style at the same time. Using a diffuser on your hairdryer, put the dryer underneath and literally scrunch your hair with your free hand.

Seaweed wrap

A body wrap or mask of concentrated sea water and seaweed which helps release toxins and revitalize the skin.

Sebaceous

Fatty or greasy, usually referring to the oil-secreting glands of the scalp.

Sebaceous gland

Oil producing gland in the dermis of the skin.

Seborrheic dermatitis

A more extensive and severe form of dandruff.

Sebum

The oily secretion of the sebaceous glands of the scalp, composed of keratin, fat or cellular debris.

Sectioning

Sectioning your hair allows you to only pay attention to a particular area or panel of hair. You or your hairdresser will do this when blow-drying, cutting or colouring your hair, and will section your hair by taking a panel of hair and pinning or ignoring the rest.

Sedation (drug-free)

Reduction of irritability, anxiety or agitation using Acupuncture and Reiki are used.

Sedation (drug)

Reduction of irritability, anxiety or agitation by taking sedative drugs before seeing the dentist. This little pill works rapidly to create a relaxed state and although you are in a sleep-like state, you are responsive. It is essential that someone escorts you home. For more challenging cases the services of a specialist anaesthetist are available for intra-venous sedation.

Selective photothermolysis

Selectively targeting dermal structures with light energy, without causing damage to surrounding tissue.

Self-tanner

A sun tanning product that contains DHA, which reacts with amino acids in the top layer of skin, causing it to temporarily darken (2-4 days).

Semen

The fluid portion of the ejaculate consisting of secretions from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland, and several other glands in the male reproductive tract.

Semen analysis

A laboratory test to assess semen quality. Semen analysis includes, sperm count, morphology, motility, semen viscosity and volume.

Semen viscosity

The liquid flow or consistency of the semen.

Semi-permanent

A colour which lasts from 6-8 shampoos.

Septoplasty

A surgical procedure done to improve the flow of air to your nose by repairing malformed cartilage and/or the bony portion. The procedure is often performed along with a rhinoplasty.

Serum

A smoothing product to stop your hair from frizzing, keeping it smooth and straight. You’ll be able to find a serum that is specifically designed to your own hair type. You can use a serum on wet hair before styling, or when used in moderation on dry hair to get a smoother look.

Shiatsu

An acupressure massage technique developed in Japan. A therapist applies pressure to specific pressure points in the body to stimulate and unblock 'meridians' or energy channels.

Shin splints

Damage to one of two groups of muscles along the shin bone that cause pain.

Silicone

Inert, synthetic compound with a wide variety of forms and uses. Silicones are ingredients in many personal care products. Some silicones are excellent hair conditioners improving combability, feel, and softness, and also lessen frizz. Another silicone family, the phenyltrimethicones, are used in reflection-enhancing and color-correcting hair products, where they increase shine and glossiness (and possibly effect subtle color changes). Silicones are also used in some shaving products and personal lubricants.

Silk protein

A natural water-soluble source of acid derived from liquid silk; these acids help moisture penetrate the skin (aid in absorption) and aid in skin healing. Used in skin and hair products.

Skin rejuvenation

Combating the signs of ageing using the latest innovative, non invasive treatments that give you visibly younger, healthy, radiant skin. Also referred to as facial rejuvenation.

Slough

To become shed or cast off (to separate in the form of dead tissue from living tissue).

Soap

Cleansing agent that is a sodium or potassium salt of animal or vegetable fat.

Soft tissues

The ligaments, tendons, and muscles in the musculoskeletal system.

Soluble

Being able to dissolve into, or being compatible with, another substance.

Soothing

Reducing skin discomforts from irritation, blemishes, burning skin, etc.

Sperm

The male reproductive cell.

Sperm agglutination

Sperm clumping caused by antibodies or by infection.

Sperm antibodies

Antibodies that are made against sperm.

Sperm count

The number of sperm in the ejaculate.

Sperm morphology

The number or percentage of sperm which look microscopically normal.

Sperm motility

The ability of sperm to move and swim normally.

SPF

An acronym for “Sun Protection Factor” ranging from 2 to 45 with 2 being the least protection and 45 the most.

Spider vein

A widened vein that can be seen through the surface of the skin. See broken capillaries. Also referred to as spyder vein, spider vain.

Split ends

See Trichoptilosis

Sprain

A partial or complete tear of a ligament.

Sprionolactone

A drug normally used to treat high blood pressure, however is also acts as an antiandrogen and is used in the treatment of androgen related disorders such as female pattern baldness and hirsuitism.

Spritz

A light mist or spray, which when used as verb means to lightly spray your hair. When describing a product it generally means the product will produce a fine mist.

Steam room

Similar to a Turkish bath where hot steam is used to help relax the body and eliminate toxins.

Steaming

The process by which most synthetic fibre is curled at the factory. The curl pattern in a synthetic wig or hairpiece may be changed by setting it in rollers or clips, and using an ordinary hand-held clothing steamer on them. After steaming the curls, let the fibre get completely cool before removing the pins or rollers.

Stereopsis

Ability to perceive three-dimensional depth.

Stillbirth

The birth of an infant with no signs of life after 20 or more weeks of gestation.

Stimulated cycle

An ART cycle in which a woman receives oral or injected fertility drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles.

Strain

A partial or complete tear of a muscle or tendon.

Stratum corneum

The outer most layer of the epidermis.

Stress fracture

A bone injury caused by overuse.

Subcutaneous

A term referring to below the skin

Sucutaneous tissue

The body’s shock absorber.

Sun protection factor

Commonly seen on suntan ingredients as “SPF,” the sun protection factor is the amount of the protection a suntan product provides. The higher the SPF, the greater the protection.

Sunblock

Products that reflect all the sun’s rays, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. They permit minimal tanning, and are a good choice for those who are sensitive to chemicals.

Sunscreen

Products with ingredients that absorb UVA and UVB rays. Find one labelled “broad spectrum” for maximum protection.

Superovulation

The stimulation of multiple ovulation with fertility drugs.

Superoxide dismutase

The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As such, it is an important antioxidant defence in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen.

Surfactants

Active agent that allows oil to mix with water. Used in skincare products like cleansers, wetting agents, emulsifiers, solubizers, conditioning agents and foam stabilizers.

Suspensory ligament of lens

A series of fibres that connect the ciliary body of the eye with the lens, holding it in place.

Suture

The stitches used to hold tissue together or to close a wound.

Sweat lodge

A spiritual ceremony linked with Native Indian culture taking place in a small, enclosed hut or other structure, and following the tradition of mind, body and spirit purification.

Swedish massage

The term “Swedish massage” refers to the various techniques designed to relax muscles by applying pressure to them against deeper muscles and bones, and rubbing in the same direction as the flow of blood returning to the heart. This increases oxygen flow in the blood while reducing toxins in the muscles. Swedish is probably the most well known and most widely requested massage.

Synovial fluid

A clear, sticky fluid that is released by the synovial membrane and acts as a lubricant for joints and tendons.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus)

A very serious, chronic, autoimmune disorder characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs, including the heart, lungs, blood vessels, brain, kidneys, and skin.

T

T-Zone

The forehead, nose and chin areas, which tend to be oilier than the cheeks.

Tai Chi

A Chinese martial art of stylized gestures regulated by deep breathing and precise movement and postures.

Tamazcal

A traditional Mayan sweat lodge where the heat helps a body to relax,

Tan

A pale brownish, tawny colour of skin as a result of sun exposure. When your skin is damaged by exposure to the UVA and UVB rays of the sun, its reaction is to produce more melanin as an attempt to protect itself against further damage. Melanocytes (produce Melanin) float within the epidermis and don’t migrate to the top. Melanin is a brown coloured protein that helps determine the colour of our skin. The Melanin that the melanocytes make finds its way into the keratinocytes (the cells containing the keratin) as they make their way up to the surface. The melanocytes produce more melanin when we are exposed to the sun. The result of this is a tan.

Targeted fat reduction

Metabolising stubborn fat deposits, typically in the lower body, using methods such as Eporex Mesotherapy.

Tea tree oil

Tea tree oil is an extraction from the Melaleuca tree. Tea tree oil should not be confused with tea oil, the sweet seasoning and cooking oil from pressed seeds of the tea plant (drinking tea). Also referred to as a Camellia Sinensis, Cajeput Tree, or the tea oil plant Camellia Oleifera.

Telogen

The resting phase in the hair cycle.

Telogen effluvium

A scalp disorder characterized by massive hair loss as a result of early entry of hairs into the telogen phase. It may be due to a variety of causes, eating disorders, fever, childbirth, chronic illness, major surgery, anemia, severe emotional disorders, crash diets, hypothyroidism, and drugs.

Temporary colour

A hair colour formula that lasts only until you shampoo your hair.

Tendon

The tough cords of tissue that connects muscles to bones.

Tendonitis

An inflammation in a tendon or the tendon covering.

Terminal hairs

Are coarse, pigmented or non-pigmented, exist on the scalp and gain length at a rate of 1-2cm per month during a cyclical life of up to 10 years.

TESA

Testicular Sperm Aspiration.

Testes

The male reproductive gland; source of sperm and male sex hormones normally occurring paired in an external scrotal sac.

Testicular biopsy

A minor surgical procedure used to take a small sample of testicular tissue for microscopic examination. Sperm may be retrieved using a testicular biopsy when there is a tubal blockage which is preventing sperm from being ejaculated.

Testosterone

A steroid hormone from the androgen group. In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass and the growth of body-hair.

Texturizer

A mild relaxing treatment. Instead of causing the hair to be ’bone straight,’ this chemical treatment is left on for a shorter period of time. The idea is to slightly relax the natural curl in African hair so that it’s more manageable and with proper maintenance, one can mimic curly styles.

Thai massage

An ancient Asian practice incorporating the principles of yoga, meditation, and acupressure techniques. It treatment assists with the release of stagnant energy within the body, while incorporating range of motion and increased mobility. You'll need to wear loose, comfortable clothing.

Thalassotherapy

The medical use of seawater and seawater products such as seaweed and algae as a form of therapy. From the Greek word for sea 'thalassa' and the Greek word for treatment 'therapia.' True thalassotherapy centres must be located at the seaside where the water, algae, mud and other substances are especially treated and purified for inclusion in the therapies.

Therapeutic touch

Hands are used to re-direct energies to help or heal someone who is ill. Touch therapists say that a client's energy field can be detected and intentionally re-focused for the promotion of health and well-being.

Thermal process

Temporarily straightening the hair with a heated iron.

Thread vein

See broken capillaries. Also referred to as thred vein, thread vain, thred vain.

Tibia

Shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg.

TMJ/TMD

A temporomandibular joint disorder stemming from malocclusion, which means having a “bad bite” or accidents and trauma. If a patient's teeth don't fit and slide together in harmony, one or more of the head and neck muscle groups may begin to suffer from fatigue. This may be felt as headaches, eye pain, shoulder pain. Stress levels are known to make matters worse.

Tone

Distribution of ashen and warm pigments, visual effect of gold or ash in the hair.

Tonometry

A test to measure intraocular pressure for glaucoma.

Topically

Means to apply directly onto the scalp.

Tourmaline

A crystal silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline gem stones come in a wide variety of colours. The name comes from the Sinhalese word “turamali” or “toramalli” which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka. Crystals of tourmaline when heated exhibit electric polarity which in turn helps the ionic effect.

Track

Parting or a cornrow that establishes the placement pattern of wefts or strand additions.

Traction alopecia

This refers to hair loss which occurs due to traction being placed on hair. Traction alopecia is commonly seen with braids, pony tails and other hairstyles which cause tension on the scalp.

Transclucent

Allows some light to pass through.

Treatment

A treatment is used in between Shampoo and Conditioner to put protein back into the hair. You should leave the treatment in your hair for approximately 5 minutes before using your conditioner. You’ll be able to find a treatment designed for your hair type.

Tretinoin

A prescription drug related to vitamin A used to treat acne and other skin disorders.

Trichoptilosis

The “splitting of hairs at the ends.” Often referred to as split ends. Comes from the Greek root “tricho” meaning hair and “ptilosis” meaning “falling out of the eyelashes.” Also referred to as Schizotrichia. A split end is when the hair-shaft splits or flays due to excessive heat and misuse. There is no way to repair split ends; when they occur, the hair must be trimmed.

Trichotillomania

This form of hair loss is caused by pulling out one’s own hair, usually without realising it.

Triclosan

Is effective against most bacteria occurring on the skin.

Trigger finger

An irritation of the digital sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons of the finger. When the tendon sheath becomes thickened or swollen it pinches the tendon and prevents it from gliding smoothly. In some cases, the tendon catches and then suddenly releases as though a trigger were released.

Tubal factor infertility

Structural or functional damage to one or both fallopian tubes that reduces fertility.

U

Ulcer

An area of tissue erosion. They are always depressed and are due to irritation. They may become infected and inflamed as they grow.

Ulnar bone

The longer of the two bones in the forearm.

Ultrasound

A diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs. A technique used in ART for visualizing the follicles in the ovaries, the gestational sac, or the fetus.

Umbilical cord

Two arteries and one vein encased in a gelatinous tube leading from the baby to the placenta. The umbilical cord is used to exchange nutrients and waste between the mother and the developing baby.

Un-descended testes (Cryptorchidism)

The failure of the testes to descend from the abdominal cavity by one year of age. If this condition is not treated promptly, sperm counts may be reduced in later life.

Unexplained infertility

Infertility for which no cause has been determined despite a comprehensive evaluation of both partners.

Unstimulated cycle

An ART cycle in which the woman does not receive drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles. Instead, follicles develop naturally. She may produce only one or two follicles.

Urologist

A physician specializing in the genitourinary tract.

Uterine factor

A disorder in the uterus (e.g., fibroid tumours) that reduces fertility.

Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which a fetus develops during pregnancy.

UV

Ultraviolet radiation. The invisible spectrum of solar radiation. It is divided into three regions with increasing danger to the skin; UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C.

V

Vagina

The canal leading from the cervix to the outside of a woman's body.

Varicocele

A dilation of veins that carry blood out of the scrotum which leads to elevated scrotal temperature. A major cause of male infertility.

Varicose vein

Enlarged, twisted veins found near the surface of the skin.

Vas deferens

The tubes through which sperm move from the testicles (epidermis) towards the seminal vesicles and prostate gland. These tubes are closed during a vasectomy.

Vasectomy

A surgical procedure to block sperm from being released in the ejaculate. Vasectomy is used as a form of birth control.

Vellus

The soft downy hair found covering the body.

Vellus hairs

Are soft, non-pigmented and rarely exceed a length of 2 cm due to the short anagen phase of cyclic follicular activity.

v

Veneers (Laminates)

Veneers (porcelain or composite) are thin, custom-made mouldings that cover the fronts of unattractive teeth. They are crafted from lifelike, high-tech materials to portray a bright, natural smile. If you are looking to improve your smile, custom-fitted veneers can provide the answer.

V

Vertex

The top of the head towards the posterior position, including the area at which the hair grows in a spiral pattern.

Vesiculation

Blister formation caused by thermal damage.

Vichy shower

A rain-like shower that streams down from six jets over a body lying on a treatment table. Relaxing and rejuvenating on its own, but most often used in combination with massage.

Virgin hair

This term refers to human hair which is still in its original state as harvested from the grower, and which has not been permed, coloured, or chemically processed in any way. It is carefully cut from the grower with the cuticle going in the same direction and preserved to maximize its special quality. Harvesting the hair in this manner takes more time, which contributes to the premium price of this hair. Virgin hair can be of any ethnic origin, but the best quality hair used in making wigs today is of Russian, Ukrainian, Belgian, and Turkish origin. This is the most expensive hair of all because it is not as plentiful as lesser quality hair. In spite of the high cost, top-quality Virgin European hair wigs are in high demand by those who wish to wear only the finest.

Vistasp therapy

An advanced Ayurvedic (East Indian) technique that uses very precise movements to stimulate nerves and maximize the flow of nutrient rich blood to the affected areas. Vistasp Therapy is different from traditional massage. The movements are very quick and exacting, directed at freeing the musculature and joints which have become immobilized over time by pain. This treatment is often taken when all other pain management therapies have been tried and have not met with success.

Visual acuity

The space visible to an eye in a given position of gaze.

Vitreous body

A clear, jelly-like substance that fills the centre of an eye.

VPL™

Variable Pulsed Light, trademark of Energis Technology, and describes the output from the ELITE System in terms of a precisely controlled sequence of pulses of light.

Vtiligo

A condition in which smooth white patches appear on the skin/hair resulting from the loss of pigment producing cells. This is due to melanin failure caused by damaged melanocytes. This damage or destruction is thought to be associated with an immune system reaction, or genetic defect. The progress of the disease is unpredictable. Approx. 2% of the population is affected.

W

Walking bleach

Method used to lighten a tooth that has darkened after root canal treatment. The whitening agent is placed inside the tooth and is active 24 hours per day.

Water-resistant

Repels moisture or water; not readily removed with water.

Watsu

A shiatsu massage treatment performed in a warm pool where the therapist holds and moves the limbs of the client.

Weave

A hair weave is usually a hairpiece with layered gaps made into it. This is then placed on a person’s head and his/her own real hair is weaved into the hairpiece.

Weft

An amount of hair or fibre which is doubled over and machine-sewn along the top to create a long strand of hair. This is also the type of hair strand used for hair extensions and weaving.

Wefts

Wefts are temporary hair extensions which are glued into your hair.

White hair

Having no pigment. Possible causes: Genetic. Vitamin B deficiency. Drugs for treatment of arthritis. Other health factors.

Whitening

A safe, effective means to whiten stained, discoloured or dull teeth (or even a single tooth). In-office and supervised at-home whitening systems are available. At-home systems should be individually fitted and monitored by your cosmetic dentist.

Wig

The term used to describe any hairpiece with a full cap which covers the hair on the head, or the entire area where hair normally grows, as a substitute for hair. The purpose of a wig is to create your ideal look.

Winter itch

A condition in which the skin becomes irritated due to a loss of moisture. Winter itch is common in the winter when the air is drier, thus its name.

Wisdom tooth removal

Wisdom teeth, also referred to as third molars are the last teeth to erupt. This occurs usually between the ages of 17 and 25. If these impacted teeth are in an abnormal position (a dentist can show you this on an X-ray), their potential for harm should be assessed. When a wisdom tooth is partially erupted, food and bacteria collect under the gum causing a local infection. This may result in bad breath, pain, swelling. Once the initial episode occurs, each subsequent attack becomes more frequent and more severe. Impacted wisdom teeth are almost certain to cause problems if left in place. This is particularly true of the lower wisdom teeth.

X

X chromosome

The female chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes in their genotype.

X-ray

A diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.

Y

Y chromosome

The Male chromosome Males have one Y and one X chromosome in their genotype.

Yoga

An ancient Hindu discipline that combines deep breathing, meditation, a variety of positions used to tone, strengthen and increase the body's flexibility. It's looked upon as a philosophical approach to balancing the body and mind.

Z

Zen

A sect of Buddhism heavy into meditation. In terms of spas and wellness, it's a term associated with a calm, minimalist decor.

Zona pellucida

The outer ‘shell' surrounding the egg. The Zona Pellucida serves two purposes; firstly allowing only one sperm to enter the egg for fertilization and secondly to hold the cells of the developing embryo together before compaction.

Zygote

A fertilized egg which has not yet divided.

Request for treatment All companies on the map
Treatment rates
treatment blogs
Customer Support
Copyright © 2017 VERDYS Corporation Limited.
All rights reserved.
Медицинский туризм, иностранцы посещают фитнес клубы Киева для улучшения здоровья. Appartment rentals, daily rent for relatives of patients